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  1. 1. Protein Synthesis<br />Making protien<br />
  2. 2. Protein<br />Protein is made from small building blocks called amino acids. These amino acids are chemicals that interact in four different types of bonding causing proteins to fold.<br />
  3. 3. Proteins<br /><ul><li>Proteins are the parts of cells that can display our traits like skin and hair color. These two examples are traits controlled by the amount of a protein called melanin.
  4. 4. Blood carries oxygen in functional protein sub-units called hemoglobin</li></li></ul><li>DNA and mRNA<br />Made up of Nucleotides:<br />Phosphate, Sugar and Base<br />Contains many genes<br />Present in all animals<br />Made up of Nucleotides:<br />Phosphate, Sugar and Base<br />Acts as a “messenger” between DNA and outside the nucleus to create the functional unit of the cell; Protein. <br />
  5. 5. DNA vs. RNA<br /><ul><li>Double helix (double stranded)
  6. 6. Deoxyribose Sugar in the backbone
  7. 7. Must remain in the nucleus
  8. 8. Base Pairs:</li></ul>Thymine<br />Guanine<br />Cytosine <br />Adenine<br /><ul><li>Single Stranded
  9. 9. Ribose Sugar in the back bone
  10. 10. Can travel in and out of the nucleus
  11. 11. Base Pairs:</li></ul>Uracil<br />Guanine<br />Cytosine <br />Adenine<br />
  12. 12. Other important players…<br /><ul><li>tRNA (aka transfer RNA)- Only 3 nucleotides long, Has an attachment site for a particular amino acid
  13. 13. Ribosome- a special protein that makes other proteins by attaching to mRNA and recruiting tRNA molecules.
  14. 14. Amino Acids- chemicals that link together to make protein, about 20 in your body called “essential amino acids”.</li></li></ul><li><iframe title="YouTube video player" width="480" height="390" src="" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe><br />
  15. 15. Step 1: Transcription<br />DNA is unzipped at a certain gene<br />mRNA is built one nucleotide at a time using the DNA as a template<br />mRNA is released back into the nucleus<br />DNA zips back up<br />
  16. 16. Step 2: Translation<br />mRNA leaves the nucleus<br />A ribosome attaches to the mRNA at the first codon<br />The ribosome “reads” the mRNA’s sequence of bases and sends out a signal for tRNA with the opposite matching codon (aka ANTI-CODON) carrying a specific amino acid<br />tRNA leaves the Amino acid attached to the ribosome and goes to search for another amino acid<br />The ribosome moves to the next codon and repeats the process<br />
  17. 17. Step 2: Translation (continued)<br />6. The ribosome continues building until the end of the mRNA<br />7. The ribosome then releases the amino acid chain back into the cell where it folds- It is now a protein!<br />8. The ribosome then releases the mRNA back into the cell <br />9. mRNA returns to the nucleus where it breaks down into nucleotides and re-starts the process<br />