Refinery Basics
John Kulluk Ph.D.
Torrance Fire Department
&

Robert Distaso PE – 714/573-6253
Orange County Fire Authorit...
Refining Means. . .

1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove
impurities
2. To improve or perfect
Refinery Process Flow Chart
Sulfur
Gas Plant

Fuel Gas
Isom

Splitter

Gasoline

Distilling

Reformer
Jet Fuel

Hydrotreat...
Other Refinery Units
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Steam Generation
Wastewater Treatment
Hydrogen Generation
Power Generation (e.g., coge...
What is Crude Oil?
• Mixture of organic
•
•

carbon chain
molecules
Impurities include
sulfur and nitrogen
compounds
Some ...
Components such as . . .
• Straight-Chain
•
•
•

Hydrocarbons
Olefins
Cyclic H/C
Aromatics
(Benzene, toluene,
xylenes)

• ...
Other Hazardous Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Sulfur
Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Ammonia (NH3)
Sodium Hypoch...
What’s All this Stuff?
What Goes on at a Refinery. . .?
• Separation of components by distillation, e.g.:




Atmospheric
Vacuum
Hydrotreating...
Physical Hazards
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

High Pressure/Temperature Steam
Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces
Acoustic
High Voltage (41...
Common PPE Requirements
• Hardhat
• Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes
• Safety Glasses with Side
•
•

Protection
Safety Goggles or...
Process Hazards
•
•
•
•

Emergency Flare
Atmospheric Pressure Relief
High Temperature (up to 2000oF)
Low Temperature (e.g....
QUESTIONS ?
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
Refinery Basic
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Refinery Basic

  1. 1. Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/573-6253 Orange County Fire Authority
  2. 2. Refining Means. . . 1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove impurities 2. To improve or perfect
  3. 3. Refinery Process Flow Chart Sulfur Gas Plant Fuel Gas Isom Splitter Gasoline Distilling Reformer Jet Fuel Hydrotreating Hydrotreating Distillate Fuel Alky CCU Flasher Visbreaker Leffler, 1985 Residual Fuel
  4. 4. Other Refinery Units • • • • • • • Steam Generation Wastewater Treatment Hydrogen Generation Power Generation (e.g., cogen) Air Separation Plant Loading/Unloading - Railcar, Trucks, etc. Storage (high pressure hydrocarbon, crude oil, intermediates) Floating-Roof Tanks - 150‘ diameter is common Spherical Tanks - 50‘ are common Horton Spheroid (refrigerated) Steam-Heated Tanks for “Heavier” Products Self-Contained Firewater Supply Firewater Pumps     • •
  5. 5. What is Crude Oil? • Mixture of organic • • carbon chain molecules Impurities include sulfur and nitrogen compounds Some metals and salts too
  6. 6. Components such as . . . • Straight-Chain • • • Hydrocarbons Olefins Cyclic H/C Aromatics (Benzene, toluene, xylenes) • Mercaptans • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) • Greases • Propane • LPG
  7. 7. Other Hazardous Materials • • • • • • • • Sulfur Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Ammonia (NH3) Sodium Hypochlorite Radioactive Materials Chlorine Amines • • • • • • • MEK Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Heavy Metal Catalysts Sour Water Caustic (fresh/spent) Alcohol Asbestos
  8. 8. What’s All this Stuff?
  9. 9. What Goes on at a Refinery. . .? • Separation of components by distillation, e.g.:    Atmospheric Vacuum Hydrotreating (uses excess hydrogen) • Breaking apart molecules to make smaller ones, e.g.:   catalytic cracking hydrocracking • Joining molecules to make bigger ones, e.g.:   Reforming - alkylation that lengthens the hydrocarbon chain Reforming - cyclic that generates hydrogen
  10. 10. Physical Hazards • • • • • • • • • • • • High Pressure/Temperature Steam Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces Acoustic High Voltage (4160V, 480V, 13.2 kV) Falling Hazards Confined Space Hazards Cranes/Lifting Hazards Hot Work Hazards Acid Exposure Toxic Vapors Radiation Flammability Hazards
  11. 11. Common PPE Requirements • Hardhat • Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes • Safety Glasses with Side • • Protection Safety Goggles or Faceshield Fire-Resistant Clothing
  12. 12. Process Hazards • • • • Emergency Flare Atmospheric Pressure Relief High Temperature (up to 2000oF) Low Temperature (e.g., Brittle Fracture) • High Pressure (up to 3000 psig) • Low Pressure (e.g., vacuum)
  13. 13. QUESTIONS ?
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