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abraham maslow
 

abraham maslow

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    abraham maslow abraham maslow Presentation Transcript

    • + Abraham Maslow Humanistic Approach
    • + Maslow • Believed humans are interested in growing rather than simply restoring balance or avoiding frustration. • Described humans as ‘wanting animals’ who are almost always wanting something. • Key goal is to reach self-actualisation – to fulfill one’s potential - moving forward towards growth, happiness and satisfaction. • Distinguished between motivation and metamotivation.
    • + MOTIVATION  Motivation: reducing tension by satisfying deficit states.  Involves deficiency needs (D-needs) – physiological survival and safety, and motivate the individual to reduce these drives.  Motivation and D-needs = powerful determinants of behaviour
    • + METAMOTIVATION  Metamotivation: growth tendencies.  Involves being needs (B-needs) – drive to self-actualisation.  Goal is to enhance life by enriching it.  Rather than reduce tension, they frequently heighten it in their quest for ever-increasing stimuli that will bring a life lived to the fullest.
    • + MOTIVATION VS METAMOTIVATION  Motivationand D-needs take precedence over metamotivation and B-needs because they dominate the organism when both needs are thwarted.  E.g. when an individual is desperate for food, they are unlikely to be concerned with spiritual goals like truth or beauty.  Within the D-needs, physiological needs are stronger than safety needs.
    • + Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1970) B-Needs D-Needs
    • + Maslow’s Stats  According to Maslow, the average American meets 85% physiological, 70% safety/security, 50% love and belongingness, 40% self-esteem and 10% self-actualisation.  The extent to which our lower needs remain unsatisfied determines how strongly those needs will dominate our behaviour.  Maslow at one point claimed that only two percent of the human population are truly, predominantly self-actualised.
    • + Knowledge and Understanding  In addition, Maslow suggested the important needs to know and understand – the need to know is more powerful than the need to understand Understanding Knowledge
    • + Aesthetic Needs  Clinical studies also convinced Maslow that in some individuals, aesthetic needs are very important: “they get sick [in special ways] from ugliness, and are cured by beautiful surroundings; they crave actively, and their cravings can be satisfied only by beauty” These needs overlap with the hierarchy and are interrelated.
    • + Exceptions to hierarchy  Maslow recognised that some creative people have pursued the development and expression of their special talents despite serious hardships and social ridicule.  Also, stronglyvalued and idealistic people willing to die or go on hunger strike.  Maslow speculated some might scramble their hierarchies due to unusual factors in their personal history.
    • + Criticism  Cross cultural research suggests that the order of needs does not always hold true for other cultures.  E.g. in Greece and Japan, security needs are much stronger than self-actualisation needs in determining motivation (Hofstede, 1980; Hofstede et al. 2002)  In these cultures, job security > job satisfaction.  In Sweden and Norway, quality of life > what a person produces – therefore, social needs > self-actualisation.
    • + Self-Actualisation  “fulfilling themselves and doing the best that they are capable of doing”
    • + Why it is rarely achieved  Jonahcomplex – tendency to doubt and even fear own abilities. Characterised by a fear of success that prevents a person from aspiring to greatness and self-fulfillment.  Socialand cultural environments imposing certain norms (e.g. what is masculine and what is not).  Strongnegative influence exerted by safety needs. Growth needs courage – most continue specific habits as > fear = > regression towards safety and security
    • + Peak experiences  According to Maslow, the self-actualised person frequently experiences peak experiences  During a peak experience, the individual experiences not only an expansion of self but also a sense of unity and meaningfulness in life. The world appears to be complete and the person is at one with it.
    • + Who is among the self-actualised?  Maslow identified: Albert Einstein, Benjamin Franklin, William James, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Eleanor Roosevelt.  Not everyone agrees; Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family destroyed by alcoholism, Lincoln suffered from depression.
    • + Maslow’s Methods  Began by selecting people who appeared to be psychologically healthy and completely satisfied their need for self-actualisation.  Rather than statistical or quantitative, Maslow used holistic analyses – general impressions.