FoundationsA strongreaction to both behaviorism andpsychodynamics.Gained Popularity in the 1960’sand 1970sWe make conscious decisions about thedirection of our lives-We have free will. It alsorejects the doctrine of determinism.We look forward, not controlled by a pasthistory of reinforcement/punishment or repressedtrauma
FoundationsDiscardsthe limits of behaviorism – noexperimentsDenies the negativity of psychodynamics – weare, at our core, good and striving to get betterFocuses on our natural progress towards fullydeveloping our potential—i.e. Towards Self-Actualization.Believes in the inherent Goodness of people
Abraham MaslowNeeds-Hierarchy Theory /Holistic Theory orHierarchical Theory of Motivation /Theory of Self-ActualizationStarted off as a BehavioristMaslow laid the groundwork for his theory of self-actualization by making the assumption thateach of us has an intrinsic nature that is good or,at the very least, neutral
If the environment is restrictive and minimizespersonal choice, the individual is likely to developin neurotic ways, because this inner nature isweakand subject to control by environmental forces.If our inner natures, for example, told usthat aggression against others is wrong, then noamount of preaching or exhortation by authoritiesthat it is justified under certain circumstanceswould dissuade us from our inner conviction
The Hierarchy of Human Needshuman beings have two basic sets of needsthatare rooted in their biology: deficiency (or basic)needs, and growth (or meta) needs.
CharacteristicsThe lower the need is in the hierarchy, the greater are itsstrength, potency,and priority. The higher needs are weaker needs.■ Higher needs appear later in life. Physiological and safetyneeds arise ininfancy. Belongingness and esteem needs arise inadolescence. The need forself-actualization does not arise until midlife.■ Because higher needs are less necessary for actualsurvival, their gratification can be postponed. Failure to satisfya higher need does not produce a crisis. Failure to satisfy alower need does produce a crisis. For this reason,Maslowcalled lower needs deficit, or defi -ciency, needs;failure to satisfy them producesa deficit or lack in the individual.
Although higher needs are less necessary for survival, theycontribute to survival and growth. Satisfaction of higher needsleads to improved health and longevity. For this reason, Maslowcalled higher needs growth, or being, needs.■ Satisfaction of higher needs is also beneficial psychologically.Satisfaction of higher needs leads tocontentment, happiness, and fulfillment.■ Gratification of higher needs requires better externalcircumstances (social,economic, and political) than does gratification of lower needs. For example, pursuing self-actualizationrequires greater freedom of expression and opportunity thanpursuing safety needs
A need does not have to be satisfied fully beforethe next need in the hierarchy becomesimportant. Maslow proposed a decliningpercentage of satisfaction for each need.Offering a hypothetical example, he describedaperson who satisfied, in turn, 85 percent of thephysiological needs, 70 percent of the safetyneeds, 50 percent of the belongingness andlove needs,40 percent of the esteem needs,and 10 percent of the self-actualization.
Esteem needs are the last of the basic urges toemerge. Maslow maintained that individualsbecome sick when these needs are thwarted. He divided them into two sets: a)esteem basedon respect for our own competence,independence, and accomplishments, andb) Esteem based on others’ evaluationsOnce the basic needs in Maslow’s hierarchy havebeen sufficiently gratified, the needs for self-actualization and cognitive understanding becomesalient
movement in this positive direction is notautomatic. Maslow believed that we often fear―our best side, . . . our talents, . . . our finestimpulses, . . . our creativeness‖(Maslow, 1962, p.58)Discovery of our abilities brings happiness ,but italso brings fear of new responsibilities and duties,fear of the unknown. Maslow called this fear theJonah complex.
For women, Maslow argued, this fear takes theform of reluctanceto make full use of theirintellectual abilities, because achievement isconsidered unfeminine and they fear socialrejectionfear of success in men may reflect a wish toavoid the responsibilities that continued successbrings, a feeling that material success somehowwill not bring emotional well-being or spiritualfulfillment,or a belief that success will not bringthem enough social recognition.
The Self-Actualization NeedPeak experiences – moments when you feeltruly fulfilled, content and at peaceYour powers and abilities come together in anintensely enjoyable way―Flow experiences‖
The following conditions are necessary in order for usto satisfy the self-actualization need:■ We must be free of constraints imposed by societyand by ourselves.■ We must not be distracted by the lower-order needs.■ We must be secure in our self-image and in ourrelationships with other people; we must be able tolove and be loved in return.■ We must have a realistic knowledge of our strengthsand weaknesses, virtuesand vices.
Maslow also proposed a second set of innate needs,the cognitive needs —to know and to understand,which exist outside the hierarchy we have described.The need to know is stronger than the need tounderstand. Thus, the need to know must be at leastpartially satisfied before the need to understand canemerge
Maslow proposed a distinct type of motivation forselfactualizers called metamotivationSelf-actualizing persons are not motivated tostrive for a particular goal. Instead, they are saidto be developing from within .Thus having B-Motivation.Maslow described the motivation of people whoare not self-actualizers as a condition of D-motivation or Deficiency. D-motivation involvesstriving for something specific to make up forsomething that is lacking within us.
Characteristics of self-actualizersClear perception of realityAcceptance of self, others, and natureSpontaneity, simplicity, and naturalnessDedication to a causeIndependence and need for privacyFreshness of appreciationPeak experiencesSocial interestDeep interpersonal relationshipsTolerance and acceptance of othersCreativeness and originalityResistance to social pressures
The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), a self-report questionnaire consisting of 150 pairs ofstatements, was developed by psychologist EverettShostrom to measure self-actualization
Carl RogersCarl Rogers: American psychologist; believed that personalityformed as a result of our strivings to reach our full humanpotential.Fully Functioning Person: Lives in harmony with his/herdeepest feelings and impulsesSelf-Image: Total subjective perception of your body andpersonalityConditions of Worth: behaviors and attitudes for which otherpeople, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard.Unconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love and approvalPositive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable,worthwhile person
The Development of the Self inChildhoodAs infants gradually develop a more complexexperiential field from widening socialencounters, one part of their experience becomesdifferentiated from the rest.This separate part, defined by the words I, me, andmyself, is the self or self-concept.The self-concept is our image of what we are, whatwe should be, and what we would like to be.
As the self emerges, infants develop a need forwhat Rogers called positive regard.- acceptance,love, and approval from other people, most notablyfrom the mother during infancy.if positive regard for the infant persists despitethe infant’s undesirable behaviors, the condition iscalledunconditional positive regard
In time, positive regard will come more from withinus than from other people, a condition Rogers calledpositive self-regard Conditions of worth evolve from this developmental sequence of positive regard leading to positive self-regard ,it derives from conditional positive regard
Not only do children learn, ideally, to inhibitunacceptable behaviors , but they also may come todeny or distort unacceptable ways of perceivingtheir experiential world.Carl Rogers used the term Incongruence todescribe feelings of depression and unhappinesscaused by not living the life we really want to.Rogers felt that individuals could have a goodjob, marriage and children but still feel unhappy, akey element of Incongruence.
Organismic Valuing ProcessCarl Rogers described our actualizing tendency as being an organismicvaluing process, where we select goals based on our inner nature andpurpose.This process may include any of the following principles:Authenticity: Getting away from defensive superficiality andbeing oneself.Autonomy: Moving away from what you should to and makingyour own decisions.Internal locus of evaluation: Judgement based on ones ownview, rather than seeking the approval of others.Unconditional positive self-regard: Judging and acceptingyourself as valuable and worthwhile, including all thoughts andemotional reactions.Process living: Recognising that we are in a constant state ofbecoming and never reach a final end point.Relatedness: Seeking close and deep relationships where youcan truly appreciate and understand other people.Openness to inner and outer experience: Being able toperceive and accept how others and oneself behaves and feels.
Fully functioning individualA growing openness to experience – they move awayfrom defensiveness and have no need for subception (aperceptual defense that involves unconsciously applyingstrategies to prevent a troubling stimulus from enteringconsciousness).An increasingly existential lifestyle – living each momentfully – not distorting the moment to fit personality or selfconcept but allowing personality and self concept to emanatefrom the experience. This results in excitement, daring,adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack of rigidity andsuggests a foundation of trust. "To open ones spirit to what isgoing on now, and discover in that present process whateverstructure it appears to have" (Rogers 1961)Increasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgmentand their ability to choose behavior that is appropriate for eachmoment. They do not rely on existing codes and social normsbut trust that as they are open to experiences they will be ableto trust their own sense of right and wrong.
Freedom of choice – not being shackled by therestrictions that influence an incongruentindividual, they are able to make a wider range ofchoices more fluently. They believe that they play arole in determining their own behavior and so feelresponsible for their own behavior.Creativity – it follows that they will feel more free tobe creative. They will also be more creative in theway they adapt to their own circumstances withoutfeeling a need to conform.Reliability and constructiveness – they can betrusted to act constructively. An individual who is opento all their needs will be able to maintain a balancebetween them. Even aggressive needs will bematched and balanced by intrinsic goodness in
A rich full life – he describes the life of the fullyfunctioning individual as rich, full and exciting andsuggests that they experience joy and pain, loveand heartbreak, fear and courage more intensely.Rogers description of the good life:his process of the good life is not, I amconvinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involvesthe stretching and growing of becoming moreand more of ones potentialities. It involves thecourage to be. It means launching oneself fullyinto the stream of life. (Rogers 1961)
Person-Centred theoryTherapy is a permissive, non-directive climatePhenomenological approach: seeing andunderstanding others from theirreference, perceptionTherapist: creates a growth promotingenvironment, non directive, not the expert, noncontrolling, caring, accepting, genuine
GOALS OF THERAPYHelp client growFocus on person, not problemPeople become more actualized1. open to experiences2. Trust themselves3. Self-evaluation4. Continue growing
THERAPIST ROLE AND FUNCTIONCreate a climate conducive to self-explorationCreate a relationship that lets clients explore freelydenied or distorted areas of lifeBe real, genuine, honest….Don’t see client in diagnostic categories
Enter clients worldDefenses are let down because therapist isreal, genuine, caringShow unconditional positive regardAccept clientEmpathetic understanding of client