Why exploration?• New Trade Routes – Wanted to increase profits – Didn’t want to pay the middle man anymore• Gold – Tales of great riches• Adventure – Renaissance spirit of curiosity & individual achievement
• Religion – Wanted to convert the heathens – Mostly Roman Catholics, spreading their religion, not salvation through Jesus Christ• Competition among European nations – Italy-monopoly on trade – Other nations want to bypass Italy – Kings wanted riches for their own country
Tools for Exploration• Maps – Not very useful in exploring new lands – Every time an explorer returned, he added onto a previously made map
Instruments• Compass –Navigation –Map making –Direction to follow a certain course
Instruments• Astrolabe• Quadrant• Cross staff – All measured angle between horizon and North star – Used to measure latitude – Not accurate on a moving ship
Sea Going Vessels• Arabic sails • Viking Sails – Good on the ocean – Good maneuverability – Only control small boats - Change directions and • Not enough room for men move around things and supplies• Caravel • combination of triangle and rectangular sails • Light and fast • Good for ocean travel
Portugal• Leads in Exploration • Dias – Surrounded by water – Sailed around south tip of – Learned skills from Moors Africa • Navigation • De Gama • Map making skills – Sailed around south tip,• Henry the Navigator reached India – Never sailed • ***Portuguese broke – Loved navigation Muslim monopoly on – Sponsored captains, trade in Indian Ocean*** mapmakers, geographers, etc.
Spain• Christopher Columbus • God planned on the – Italian, sponsored by New World being Spain discovered ONLY after – Wanted to reach Asia by the truth of the Bible is sailing East now becoming more – Ptolemy and Marco Polo well known. – Leaves August • October spots land • San Salvador, Bahamas • Thinks it is Japan
BECAUSE OF THE LINE OF DEMARCATIONTHE SPANISH COULD NOT SAIL AROUNDTHE AFRICAN CONTINENT TO INDIA.THEY HAD TO FIND ANOTHER ROUTE….
Ferdinand Magellan• 1519- Sail East by going West – 200+ men; 5 ships; 3 years – Sail around southern tip of S. America – Named Pacific Ocean (peaceful)• Only 18 men; 1 ship made it back to Spain – Magellan dies in Philippines• 1st time- Circumnavigate world – Found alternate route to East Indies
EUROPE AND THE NEW WORLDAKA THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
Native Americans• Natives had lived here for thousands of years• Farmers/gatherers, hunters• Worship nature gods• Small tribes rather than large nations
Natives of Central & S. America• More advanced than N. American natives – Large cities – Traded with neighbors – Created art/literature• Maya (300-900 AD)• Aztec (1300s AD)• Incas (1380 – 1570 AD)
Maya • Many city-states • Pyramids • Paved highways • Hieroglyphs • Astronomy • Computed length of year 365 ¼ days • Worshipped false gods • Declined before Spanish arrival
Aztec• After Mayan decline• 1345- founded city of Tenochtitlan – City on lake – Central Mexico – Temple in center, canals through city – Fighters – Conquered over 2 million people – Human sacrifices to their gods