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Chapter 3 ppt India


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Chapter 3 ppt India

  1. 1. Chapter 3 - India Early and Classical India AP World Hals
  2. 2. Indus Valley  Geography of Indian Subcontinent  Juts out from the continent  Includes modern day India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh  Northern border, Hindu Kush and Himalayas  Passage ways in between  Limited contact, but by no means isolated
  3. 3.  3 Regions  1 – Well-watered Northern plain  Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers  Rivers seen as sacred (river “lokmata” or “mother of the people”  2 – dry, triangular Deccan  Raised area of level land, juts into Indian O.  Arid, unproductive, and sparsely populated  3 – coastal plans on either side of the Deccan  Separated from Deccan by low-lying mountains (E and W Ghats)  Seas for fishing, highways for trade
  4. 4. Monsoons “seasonal wind” October – blow from NE – bringing hot dry air and withering crops Late May, early June – blow from SW – bringing moisture form the Indian Ocean Monsoon rains are all about balance  By the time they come people are desperate for rain  Too much rain floods and wrecks crops  Too little or late rains causes famine and starvation
  5. 5. The monsoon season in India is always awesome and erratic. The death toll in flooding so far this year has surpassed 500 across India. A rickshaw puller in Calcutta coped with a particularly heavy downpour this week. NY Times July 2007
  6. 6. Indus Valley Civilization in present day Pakistan c.  Emerged 2500 BCE  Archaeologists pretty sure they had well organized government  Powerful leaders would have made sure that the thousands of city-dwellers had supply of grain  Uniform bricks suggest government planners  Suggest skills in mathematics and surveying to lay cities out so precisely  Indian vessels sailed to Sumer by hugging the coast
  7. 7. Indus Valley Religion  Clues –  Polytheistic  Mother goddess, source of creation, seems to be widely honored  Worshiped sacred animals – esp. the bull **probably beginnings of the veneration of cattle**
  8. 8. Disappearance? By 1750 BCE quality of life declining  Orderly cities were not as well kept (pottery got cruder) Damage to local environment?  Too many trees cut down to fuel the ovens of brick makers? Volcanic Eruption?  Did they find tons of river mud in the streets because a volcanic eruption? Devastating Earthquake? Probably fell completely ~1500 BCE – nomadic people arrived in even larger numbers from the N  Aryans had slowly migrated with cattle, sheep, and goats, horse-drawn chariots and superior weapons  Indus River Valley cities were abandoned and forgotten
  9. 9. Aryan Civilization  Group of Indo-European people who migrated across Europe and Asia  Priorities – seeking water and pasture for horses and cattle  Didn’t build cities or statues
  10. 10. The Vedas  collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings  Memorized and recited by priests for over a thousand years before recorded  Vedic Age – 1500 BCE – 1000 BCE  Very little about Aryans is known, most of it is derived from the Vedas
  11. 11. Aryans as depicted in the Vedas Appear as warriors who fought in chariots with bows and arrows Loved eating, drinking, music, chariot races, and dice games Nomadic herders who valued cattle (provided food and clothing) Even once settled, farmers measured their worth in cows and bulls
  12. 12.  Rig-Veda is the first epic story, 1028 hymns dedicated to the Aryan gods  Attributed the rise of the caste system to the gods Social Classes – people divided by occupation  Brahmins – priests  Kshatriyas – warriors  Vaisyas – herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants  Sudras – Dravidians and non-Aryans, farmworkers, servants, and low level laborers **warriors initially most prestigious, but priests eventually gain upper hand b/c Brahmins alone could conduct ceremonies to win favor with the gods Untouchables
  13. 13.  Aryans felt superior to those they conquered  (Dravidians – who might have been the descendents of the original Indus Valley people) Class divisions slowly evolved to reflect social and economic roles more than ethnic difference between Aryans and non-Aryans A more complex system of castes emerges  Castes – people are born into social groups and cannot change (no social mobility)
  14. 14. Aryan Religious Beliefs  Polytheistic – gods and goddesses that embody natural forces (sun&sky, storm&fire)  Indra – god of war – chief deity  Varuna – god of order and creation  Agni – god of fire – who communicated human wishes to the gods  Aryans also honor animals like monkey gods and snake gods  Brahmins offer sacrifices of food and drink  Aryans thought correct rituals and prayers could call on the gods for health, wealth, and victory in war
  15. 15. Evolving beliefs  Some religious thinkers were moving towards idea of a single spiritual force above the gods of Vedas called “brahman”  Brahman believed to reside in all things  Trend toward mysticism  Mystics – people who devote life to seeking spiritual truth (often through meditation and yoga)
  16. 16. Expansion and Change Over centuries, waves of Aryans went through the mountain passes into NW India Led by chiefs called Rajahs Rajahs – skilled war leader elected to his position by an assembly of warriors  Ruled with advice from a council of elders made up of heads of families
  17. 17. Nomads to Farmers Settle in the Ganges basin By ~800 BCE started using iron Built walled cities with multistory houses ~500 BCE new Indian civilization emerges  Consisted of rival kingdoms  Aryan and Dravidian traditions have blended  Sanskrit has developed and priests start writing down sacred texts
  18. 18. Epic Age – 1000 BCE – 600BCE  Mixes of history, mythology, adventure, and religion  These epics depict a more settled and agricultural society with better organized political units than during the era describe in the Vedas.  Evolved over time, priests-poets added new morals to the tales to teach different lessons
  19. 19.  Mahabharata – India’s greatest epic  100,000 verses of battles of rival Aryan tribes fighting to control the Ganges region  5 royal brothers – Pandavas, lose their kingdom to their cousins  An 18 day battle put the Pandavas back in control and the brothers restore peace to India Ramayana –  Story of a hero named Rama and his beautiful bride Sita. Sita is kidnapped by demon-king Ravana  Rama gets help from Hanuman, the monkey general, and rescues Sita  Rama is an ideal king and Sita is an ideal woman b/c she remained loyal and obedient to her husband through many hardships
  20. 20. Hinduism andBuddhism Chart and group time!
  21. 21. Hinduism Vedas, most importantly Rig Veda Upanishads – appeared 800-400 BCE, speaks of a universal spirit known as Brahman  Believe reincarnation – and that the atman (human spirit) could eventually join the universal spirit if the human being behaved ethically Beliefs eventually called Hinduism  Karma, dharma, gods and goddesses
  22. 22.  Cremation considered proper burial ceremony Cows considered sacred animals, not to be consumed
  23. 23.  Founded by SiddhartaBuddhism Gautama (563-483 BCE)  Left his comfy life as a prince to seek the meaning of life  Eventually experienced an enlightenment  Became called the Buddha, meaning “Enlightened one”  Shared with his followers, never claimed to be a god  After death some of his followers consider him a deity  Buddhism spreads slowly
  24. 24. Two main sects Theravada Buddhism  strongest in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Burma (Myanmar). It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism‘ Mahayana Buddhism  strongest in Tibet, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia  Includes Zen Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism  (source BBC: Buddhism 101)
  25. 25. The Four Noble Truths  The essence of the Buddhas teachings  It was these four principles that the Buddha came to understand during his meditation under the bodhi tree.  The truth of suffering (Dukkha)  The truth of the origin of suffering (Samudāya)  The truth of the cessation of suffering (Nirodha)  The truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (Magga)  The Buddha is often compared to a physician. In the first two Noble Truths he diagnosed the problem (suffering) and identified its cause. The third Noble Truth is the realization that there is a cure. The fourth Noble Truth, in which the Buddha set out the Eightfold Path, is the prescription, the way to achieve a release from suffering.  (Source: BBC: Buddhism 101)
  26. 26. Buddha’s Six Positions
  27. 27. Regional Developments By 600 BCE, 16 major states existed  Monarchies, republics, you name it Magadha, a regional state, begins establishing dominance  Dates: 327 BCE Alexander the Great pushed into NW India  322 – Changragupta Maurya siezes power along the Ganges River
  28. 28. Chandragupta Maurya  First to unify a bunch of the subcontinent  Maintains large armies with thousands of chariots and elephant-borne troops  Develops bureaucracy  Very autocraticxp=911&xi=4343&xl=3&o=0&t=
  29. 29. Ashoka 269-232 BCE Chandragupta’s grandson Governor of two provinces, continues to use his military to extend his lands (quite brutally) Inspired by Buddhism  spread Buddhism throughout India, while honoring Hinduism  Sent Buddhist missionaries to the ME and Sri Lanka Builds up infrastructure (trade, communication, road networks with wells and rest stops)
  30. 30. Successes and Decline  Successes  Buddhism’s presence in India grows and persists  Reasons for Decline  After Ashoka dies, the empire falls back into its regional kingdoms  Kushans invade from the NW  Rule until about 220 CE, emphasize Buddhism, but actually make it less popular (by associating it with foreign rule)  About 100 years of instability
  31. 31. The Guptas 320 – 535 CE Greatest period of stability Autocratic kings and emperors, trying to negotiate with regional leadership  Many regions had aristocratic assemblies as well Claimed religious appointment  Although that idea only appealed to Hindus
  32. 32. Not exactly uniformity  No single language, many regional languages  Sanskrit only the language of the educated people  Create a demanding tax system  Allow regional leaders to control their region if they acknowledged the Guptas authority
  33. 33.  Uniform law codes Road building Developed universities Kautilya – Chandr.’s advisor had legalist- ish advice for how to lead; stressed efficiency
  34. 34. The Caste System The true caste system sets in Subcastes established; nearly 300 jati (livings) Could actually marry down Caste rules governed marriages, permissible jobs, social habits (like eating and drinking) No state could command full loyalty from subjects – their first loyalty was to caste
  35. 35. Religious Beliefs  Hinduism continues to become the dominant religion of India  Can encourage political and economic goals (artha) and worldly pleasures (karma)  Very fluid – adaptable to the needs of various groups and can change with circumstance  Bhagavad Gita – classic sacred hymn about a warrior doing battle against relatives  “he will not really be killing his victims because their divine spirit will live on” - Stearns  Ethical concept of dharma much less detailed and prescriptive than Christianity or Islam  Inner study and meditation
  36. 36.  Buddhism  Denies validity of the caste system  Upholds idea of reincarnation  Argue holy life could be achieved through individual effort by people at every level of society  Denies spiritual value of castes, rituals and priests  Organize monasteries and monks
  37. 37. Nalanda University Center Religion, philosophy, medicine, architecture and agriculture Over 100 lecture halls, 3 libraries, astronomical observatory, and a model dairy
  38. 38. Astronomy andMedicine Aryabhatta – calculates length of the solar year and improves mathematical measurements Earth rotates daily on its axis Predicted and explained eclipses Theory of gravity Identify seven planets (religion banned dissection, but…) Bone setting and plastic surgery Smallpox vaccine Sterilization of wounds
  39. 39. Math Arabic numbering system Concept of zero Decimal system Concept of negative numbers Square roots Table of sines Calculated pi more accurately than the Greeks
  40. 40. Society  Very tight family unit  Husband dominant  But mutually respectful relationship between the husband and wife  Young children are doted on  Children expected to work hard  Adults obliged to care for older relatives
  41. 41. Economics Produced fine cotton cloth, calico, and cashmere goods Merchants - enjoy fairly high caste system and the flexibility of the Hindu ethic Tamils – S. India traders  Traded cotton and silks, dyes, drugs, gold, and ivory  Brought in pottery, wine, metals, some slaves, and gold