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# Computer Fundamentals

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Computer Fundamentals

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### Computer Fundamentals

1. 1. Computer Fundamentals Chapter 1
2. 2. <ul><li>A computer is a very powerful and fast computing (calculating) machine. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer can be defined as a device that can perform both arithmetic and non-arithmetic operations accurately on any data or information at a very high speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The set of instructions given to the computer is called a program. </li></ul>
3. 3. <ul><li>A program can be defined as a set of instructions, which directs the computer to produce the desired results. </li></ul><ul><li>GIGO- Garbage In Garbage Out. Means if incorrect data is input to the computer system or an incorrect program acts on the data, the output will also be incorrect. </li></ul>
4. 4. Speed Calculation Unit of Time Parts of a second Millisecond (ms) One-thousandth (1/1000) Microsecond (ms) One-millionth(1/1,000,000) Nanosecond (ns) One-billionth(1/1,000,000,000) Picoscon (ps) One-trillionth (1/1,000,000,000,000)
5. 5. Characteristics of a Computer <ul><li>Speed: The speed of a computer in terms of nanoseconds and picoseconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy: All computers have almost 100% accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: Reliability of any computer system is typically in the range of 99.9%. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: It can store many data and easily to access them. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage: It can hold huge numbers of data. </li></ul>
6. 6. Basic Applications of Computers <ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia and hospital administration </li></ul><ul><li>Ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>Banks and Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific and engineering applications </li></ul><ul><li>Business and administrative applications </li></ul><ul><li>Avionics and space flights </li></ul><ul><li>Humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Police Work </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul>
7. 7. Components of a Computer System
8. 8. The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
9. 9. The System Unit
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