<ul><li>Maestría en Educación Bilingüe: </li></ul><ul><li>el Ingles como Segundo Idioma </li></ul><ul><li>Materia: </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and Approaches of a Second Language. </li></ul><ul><li>Catedrático: </li></ul><ul><li>M.E. Cesar Augusto Hernández Arellano </li></ul>
<ul><li>Unit II. Oriented Methodologies for Second Language Teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Adaptations of the Direct Method. </li></ul><ul><li>¨Total Physical Response¨ </li></ul><ul><li>TPR </li></ul><ul><li>Team: </li></ul><ul><li>Rodríguez Morales Sandra </li></ul><ul><li>Sarabia Aguirre Sayuri </li></ul>Method developed by: James J. Asher
Sample Classroom Activities <ul><li>Students sit in a semicircle around the instructor, the instructor ask them to be silent, listen to commands, and then do exactly what she/he does. </li></ul><ul><li>The students respond with their bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>The routine is repeated several times until the students request to try it without the instructor acting as a model. </li></ul>The students are invited but not pressured TO REVERSE ROLES, now the teacher performs in response to the students commands. Later, skits are prepared and perform by students. And still later, problem/solving situations are used. For five minutes at the end of each class period, students were invited to ask questions about anything that happened during the classroom experience
VARIATIONS Maximize Your Language Learning through TPR by Reid Wilson
TPR –B / TPR with body Includes everything that can be done with general body movement: stand up! sit down! turn around! turn right! turn left! lift up your arm! touch your nose! This is best done in a room with some space to move around. Simon says
TPR – 0 / TPR with objects This is best done sitting a table that has some objects on it. Could not only learn the words for: "apple", "banana", "orange", "give me", "take", "put", "smell", "bite", "roll", "peel", and "show me". You could start off with: This is an apple. This is an orange. This is an apple. This is an orange. Where is the apple? (Ss would point) Where is the orange?" - New words can be fairly quickly built up one at a time . - Remember to learn verbs that are associated with the objects you are learning.
TPR-P / TPR with pictures Pictures are extremely effective language learning tools . You could go through an album and say : This is a man. This is a boy. This is a man. This is a boy. Where is the man? Where is the boy? Gradually both background and foreground objects in the pictures could be learned, as well as verbs: The carpenter is hitting the nail with a hammer. Leading to requests such as: Show me the man who is hitting something.
TPR – S / TPR Storytelling It involves the teacher (and eventually the students) acting out simple stories as a means of understanding the story and internalizing vocabulary. By: Blaine Ray
Proficiency orientation Students live their learning process . TPR students begin speaking only when each person is ready while students in a traditional class speak on cue, usually starting with the very first meeting of the class when the instructor says, "Listen and repeat after me." Students learn to learn The key thought here is that students themselves decided upon the appropriate time to fine-tune with some memorization rather than the usual procedure in a traditional class where the instructor unilaterally makes this decision.
Proficiency orientation The functional, active use of the language, and the contexts normally use in the target culture do not seem to be a natural outcome of this method The spoken grammar is highly promoted, but after 60 hours of training, there still could be many errors in pronunciation and grammar
Potential Drawbacks <ul><li>Incongruence with proficiency goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Only little chance to handle the language for natural </li></ul><ul><li>or normal purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging for shy students. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for beginners. </li></ul>
In conclusion… The secret of TPR is to make it a regular, ongoing part of your language study program, with great emphasis at the beginning but continued use throughout your language learning days. The ability to learn 30 new words any given hour is fun, but the commulative effects of learning 30 new words each hour for many, many hours is where real language ability develops.