Civil War


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Civil War

  1. 1. Background to the Conflict Pre-Civil War Days
  2. 2. Differences Divide North and South <ul><li>Regional Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More factories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People began moving to the cities to work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less people were farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People from other countries moved to the North </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Plantation Life <ul><ul><li>Huge plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed a lot of workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used slave labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The South <ul><li>Farming remained the main way to earn a living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were small one family farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Slave Economy <ul><li>Many people began to turn against slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of owning slaves was too high for most </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves worked on large plantations. </li></ul><ul><li>Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves. </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ King Cotton” <ul><li>Cotton was hard to prepare for market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made cleaning cotton easier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers grew more cotton and made more money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed more slaves to work the cotton </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. North and South Disagree <ul><li>States’ Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought the North was getting RICH off of them </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Slavery Issue <ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT??? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Lesson 2. Africans in Slavery and Freedom <ul><li>Life Under Slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laws for slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves could not leave owners’ land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could not buy or sell goods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not allowed to learn to read or write </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treated as property with very few privileges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coping with Slavery <ul><ul><li>Spirituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed close knit groups to help each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sang religious songs to give them strength </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Overseers <ul><ul><ul><li>Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fighting Back <ul><li>Fighting Back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most resisted slavery ( act against) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet ways they resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. John Brown’s Rebellion <ul><ul><ul><li>John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A white abolitionist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caught, tried, and hanged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Violent Resistance <ul><ul><li>Violent ways to resist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nat Turner’s Revolt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led an attack killing 57 people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Running Away <ul><li>Running Away </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many chose to run away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found safe places to hide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indians protected some </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were helped by the Underground Railroad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were caught and punished for trying to escape. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Underground Railroad <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System of escape routes leading to freedom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members were called conductors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiding places were called stations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman was most famous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An escaped slave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to the South over 20 times to help others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Free Africans <ul><li>Not all Africans were slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were former slaves freed by their owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others had bought their freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some had escaped to freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Life for Africans… <ul><li>Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwelcome in many places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often treated unfairly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had little freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not allowed to vote or meet in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not attend school or have certain jobs </li></ul></ul>Whites Only
  19. 19. Facing a National Problem Slave State? Free State? or
  20. 20. New Compromises <ul><li>Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked hard to settle differences dividing the nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressman from Kentucky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free state: didn’t want slavery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave state: wanted slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything was EVEN until Missouri became a state. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Missouri Compromise <ul><li>Asked to join the U.S. as a slave state </li></ul><ul><li>This would make more slave states than free. </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri would join as a slave state AND Maine would join as a free state. </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginary line would be drawn through the rest of the Louisiana territory </li></ul>
  22. 22. Solutions to the Problem <ul><li>North of the line = Free States </li></ul><ul><li>South of the line = Slave states </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 <ul><li>Kept the peace for nearly 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Six new states joined the Union – 3 slave and 3 free….still equal in number </li></ul><ul><li>AND THEN along came… California </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>Henry Clay to the rescue AGAIN </li></ul><ul><li>California = Free </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico and Utah territories= people would decide </li></ul>
  25. 25. Fugitive Slave Law <ul><li>A new law that said: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone caught helping slaves escape would be punished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you found a runaway slave, you had to return them to their owner. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser <ul><li>Died in 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Never gave up hope in finding peaceful solutions to problems </li></ul><ul><li>One his grave marker it says, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I know no North – no South – No East – No West” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Hopes for Peace Fade <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><li>Gave people living there the choice by voting </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds moved in to “vote” on whether to be a free or slave state. </li></ul><ul><li>Tempers FLARED and over 200 people were killed in the dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed “ Bleeding Kansas” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Dred Scott Case <ul><li>Supreme Court ruled that once a slave, living in a free state, didn’t change that. </li></ul><ul><li>Said Scott had “none of the rights and privileges” of American citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people’s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Abraham Lincoln works for Change <ul><li>Violence because of the Kansas-Nebraska act got everyone’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln was against the SPREAD of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Party formed to fight the spread of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln ran for Senator </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was his OPPONENT! The battle is ON……… </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates <ul><li>Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, thin man from the frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Wore plain dark clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Not well known </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy and a foot shorter than Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Well educated </li></ul><ul><li>Wore fine clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Senator </li></ul><ul><li>Well known </li></ul>Both were powerful public speakers
  31. 31. Douglas <ul><li>Each new state should decide the slavery question for itself. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Lincoln <ul><li>“ The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.” </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is that slavery is WRONG! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Senate Winner <ul><li>Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>But….now everyone knew who Abraham Lincoln was!!! </li></ul>Douglas Wins!
  34. 34. A Time for Hard DECISIONS
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party candidate: Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party south: Breckinridge </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Party: LINCOLN </li></ul>
  36. 36. Stephen A. Douglas <ul><li>West should decide for themselves about slavery. </li></ul>States' Choice
  37. 37. John Breckinridge <ul><li>Democratic candidate popular with southerners </li></ul><ul><li>Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West. </li></ul>Slavery Everywhere
  38. 38. Abraham Lincoln <ul><li>Republican candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Against the SPREAD of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Said he hoped it would one day END there, too. </li></ul>No Slavery beyond this point!
  39. 39. Worried White Southerners <ul><li>Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected. </li></ul>Lincoln In...We're OUT
  40. 40. Lincoln Elected President <ul><li>November 6, 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Later SIX other southern states seceded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alabama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Confederate States of America <ul><li>South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>F lorida </li></ul><ul><li>L ouisiana </li></ul><ul><li>A labama </li></ul><ul><li>G eorgia </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul>Jefferson Davis
  42. 42. Fort Sumter <ul><li>Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go” </li></ul><ul><li>Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.” </li></ul><ul><li>Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!” </li></ul>Ignore Give In FIGHT
  43. 43. Lincoln’s Choices <ul><li>He wanted to prevent war. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are not enemies, but friends.” </li></ul><ul><li>THE VERY NEXT DAY </li></ul><ul><li>An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter: </li></ul>
  44. 44. Urgent! <ul><li>Message from Commander Anderson </li></ul>Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.
  45. 45. What to Do??? <ul><li>If I send supplies…Southerners might attack. </li></ul><ul><li>If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack. </li></ul><ul><li>If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender. </li></ul>? ? ?
  46. 46. Decision <ul><li>Lincoln decided to send supply ships </li></ul><ul><li>And see what the Southerners would do </li></ul>
  47. 47. Confederate President Davis <ul><li>Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded them to surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER! </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up. </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Civil War has Begun! <ul><li>Lincoln called for Americans to join the army to stop the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Frightened southern states not in the Confederacy now joined with the other 7 states. </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>11 States Strong </li></ul>