A slave was not permitted to leave hismaster’s land without a pass. If he wascaught without a pass he could bewhipped.If a Negro (free black) gave a pass to aslave without consent of his owner,both could be punished. The one whogave the pass could receive up to 39lashes on his bare back. (More than 40lashes could kill a slave)•SLAVE CODES•Slavery: •Africans would be captured inAfrica, placed on ships, andtransported across the AtlanticOcean (Middle Passage).•Once in the US, they would besold at auctions to the highestbidder. They would then go towork on plantations doing fieldwork such as growing cash cropslike cotton and tobacco.•The Cotton Gin made slavery andcotton profitable. The Gin allowedmore cotton to be grown andprocessed. Slavery grew andexpanded as a result of the CottonGin.•Laws, called Slave Codes,controlled the behavior of slaves.Slaves could be punished foralmost any reason. Whippingswere very common.
•Sectionalism: Loyalty to one’s local interests.-During the early 1800’s, the nation began to break down into sections. Each section had their own agenda.•Northern Section: During the 1800’s, Northern life centered aroundmanufacturing. Factories were everywhere, producing products from textilesto weapons. Northern textile factories depended on Southern plantations forthe cotton that they used.Cotton from South; Used by Northern factories; To produce textile goods.•1840’s: Women’s Rights Movements starts in the North. 1848: Seneca Falls Convention (National Women’s Rights Convention), Seneca Falls,NYElizabeth Cady StantonLucretia Mott•Created the Seneca Falls Declaration calling for greater rights for women, especially women’s suffrage.Northernfactoriesemployed youngwomen.
•Southern Section: Southern life and economy depended on growing cotton and slave labor.•Slaves worked long, hard hours and lived in awful conditions.•Southern plantation owners made huge profits from slave labor.
•It was this land between the states and the river that manyUS citizens would refer to as the West.•The goal of our government and most of its people was topopulate this land with white citizens and create states whichwould connect it to the rest of the country.•Western Section: The “West” was growing quickly as people moved to the west in search of free or cheap farmland and a better life.LouisianaPurchase William Clark Meriwether Lewis
•Compromise of 1820: Missouri enters as slave state, Maine enters as free state, and create Missouri Compromise Line•As Americans move west, the issue of slavery emerges.-Northern states want territories to be free labor areas.This means that people get paid for the work they do andhave freedom.-Northerners do not like slavery and want it to end.-Southern states want territories to be open to slavery sothat cash crops can be grown.•Sod houses used on Great Plains.
•Manifest Destiny: The idea that the US was meant to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Under this idea, the US had theright to take any land between the eastern US and the Pacific Ocean, regardless of who was living there or who owned it.-Common phrases spoken by Americans to support Manifest Destiny:-”Annexation of Texas” -”Fifty-four Forty or Fight” -”All of Oregon or None!”•Texan War of Independence: In the 1830’s, Americans moved into Texas to settle down. In 1836, they declared independence from Mexico.-The Mexican leader, Santa Anna, led an army to put down rebellion.-Battle of the Alamo: 200 Americans fought the Mexican Army for 13 days until the Mexicans captured the Alamo.-Several weeks later, Santa Anna would be captured and forced to give Texas its independence.
•Mexican-American War(1846-1848): As a result ofthis war, which the US won,Mexico was forced to give upmuch land in the AmericanSouthwest. This includedCalifornia and the NewMexico Territory.•The California Gold Rush(1848-1849):-Gold was discovered in1848 and within 2 years over80,000 people rushed toCalifornia to become rich.
Oregon or bust•Oregon Trail: The Oregon Territory attracted thousands of Americans because of the descriptions written by Lewis and Clark.-People went to Oregon to find free or cheap land in order to farm.-They would follow the Oregon Trail from Missouri to Oregon.
12367584•As the US expanded into the west,the question became: Should theland be free or slave?
•Slave Revolts: Southern whites felt threatened whenever a slave revolt took place.•Nat Turner: Led a revolt whereabout 50 whites were killed.•When slaves ran away, rewards were offered in order to get them back. Slaveowners did not want to lose their property. A Fugitive Slave Law was passed byCongress requiring Northern States to help find and return escaped slaves.Northern states hated and resented this law.•Many slaves escaped to Canada by using the Underground Railroad.This was run by Northern Abolitionists. Escaped slaves such asHarriet Tubman helped slaves escape.One slave “shipped” himself to the North to escape.Slaves whoescapedwerepunished.
•Compromise of 1850: Settled the issue of slavery in the land conquered from Mexico in the Mexican War of 1846-1848.1. California entered nation as a free state.2. Land taken from Mexico split into UtahTerritory and New Mexico Territory.3. Slavery would be decided by popular voteby the people living in the territories.4. Created the Fugitive Slave Law.Northerners did not follow the Fugitive SlaveLaw.
•Harriet Tubman: An escaped slave whohelped others escape using the UndergroundRailroad.John Brown: Abolitionist•Frederick Douglass: Escaped slave who moved toRochester, NY and started an abolitionist newspapercalled the North Star.•Abolitionists: People who wanted to end slavery and free the slaves.•Harriet Beecher Stowe: Wrote a book called“Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” Showed the evil’s ofslavery. Popular in the North, illegal in theSouth.•Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): Law passed by Congress that divided theterritory into 2 separate territories. Slavery would be decided by popularsovereignty (the people vote on the issue).-Pro-slavery people move to Kansas to vote “yes.”-Anti-slavery people (Abolitionists) move to Kansas to vote “no.”-Violence breaks out between the two groups. Kansas becomes known as“Bleeding Kansas.”Led group of anti-slavery people.Attacked and killed pro-slavery people inKansas.
•Dred Scott Decision: Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom. The US Supreme Courtruled against Dred Scott and said slavery was allowed in all territories.Republican Democrat•Popular Sovereignty is the belief that the people living in a territory have the right todecide for themselves if slavery will be allowed in their territory…………. StephenDouglas•A house divided cannot stand. I believe that this government cannot last half slaveand half free………………………Abraham Lincoln•Slaves are property and not people. Slaves have no right that a white man is bound to respect….-Roger Taney, Chief Justice USSupreme Court•I believe that the crimes of this guilty land may only be purged by blood……-John Brown•John Brown – Harper’s Ferry-Attacked federal arsenal in order to capture the weapons and start a slave revolt.-Captured and hung.-South afraid of Northern abolitionists and attempts to get rid of slavery.•Lincoln and Douglas ran against each other in 1858 for the US Senate. Douglas would win, butLincoln became nationally known
•Confederate States of America: Southern states left the United States and formed the Confederate States of America orthe Confederacy. Jefferson Davis was elected the 1stPresident of the Confederacy.•Election of 1860: Lincoln, a Republican, elected 16thPresident in 1860.-Southerners hated Lincoln due to his dislike of slaveryand goal of not spreading slavery into the territories.-Southern states begin to secede or leave the Union onceLincoln is elected.