Unit 1: The Emergence of Modern America
Topic #2: World War I
‐‐‐How and why did the United States enter World War I?
‐‐‐What were Wilson's goals upon entering World War I? Why didn't more Americans share his
vision of American national interests?
‐‐‐How did World War I affect the United States at home? Who benefited? Who did not? Why?
‐‐‐How did the American government shape public opinion during the war? What can we learn
from these efforts?
‐‐‐Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty? What were the implications of this decision?
‐‐‐What was the post‐war backlash?
20th Century U.S. Wars
1898: 1914 ‐ 1918: 1939‐ 1945: 1945 ‐ 1989
Spanish‐American World War I: World War II: Cold War
War Europe Europe 1950 ‐ 1953 1960 ‐ 1975
Korean War Vietnam War
1917 ‐ 1918: 1941‐ 1945:
World War I: World War II:
United States United States
Why did we enter each war?
What was our national interest?
World War I in Europe:
Nature of the War
Wilson's Neutrality Policy (1914):
What is the nature of this policy? Why does this policy fail to keep us out of war?
What factors undermined Wilson's neutrality policy? Why did the U.S. enter World War I in
How did World War I affect the United States at home? Who benefited? Who did not?
Did Benefit: Did Not Benefit:
• Big Business‐‐‐government guaranteed • Immigrants‐‐German Americans targeted
them big profits‐‐‐W.I.B. propaganda and by govt. laws
• Farmers‐‐Food Administration‐‐‐higher • Free thinkers, dissenters, any one who
prices for farm products questioned the war
• Labor‐‐better working conditions, • Radical labor leaders‐‐I.W.W. (Wobblies)‐‐
higher wages I.W.W. = radical union‐‐‐communist
• Women‐‐‐more equality (19th • African Americans‐‐more racism in the North
Amendment), more opportunity for jobs
(temporary changes) • Consumers‐‐higher prices
• African Americans‐‐‐more jobs up
• Native Americans‐‐citizenship
OUR QUESTIONS FOR THE DAY
1.) How did World War I end?
2.) What did President Wilson hope to get out of the peace?
3.) What actually happened instead and why?
4.) Why did the U.S. Senate fail to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?
5.) What were the lasting implications of this failure?
Turning Points in Ending World War I
March 1917 April 1917 June 1917 Nov. 1917 Nov. 1918
German U Boat U.S. Declares War American Forces Bolshevik Revolution Armistice Ends War
War Intensifies on Germany Arrive in Europe in Russia
The Peace Conference
The Palace of Versailles, January 1919
The Big 4: President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd George
(England), Prime Minister George Clemenceau (France) and
Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Imagine you can step in the minds of these four world
leaders as they discuss their hopes for the upcoming peace
conference. What are they concerned about? What are their
How would you describe the provisions of the peace treaty?
The Senate Debate Over the League of Nations
Internationalists Mild Reservationists Strong Reservationists Irreconcilables
President Wilson Senator Hitchcock Senator Lodge Senator Borah
27 Senate Democrats 20 Senate Republicans 7 Senate Republicans 14 Senate Republicans
20 Senate Democrats 1 Democrat
Covenant of the League of Nations
quot;The Members of the League undertake to
respect and preserve as against external
aggression the territorial integrity and
existing political independence of all
Members of the League. In case of any such
aggression or in case of any threat or
danger of such aggression the Council shall
advise upon the means by which this
obligation shall be fufilled.quot;
The Senate Vote
November 19, 1919
Treaty + Lodge Reservations
Senate Democrats + Irreconcilables Voted Against = 55
Lodge Reservationists = 39
The Senate Vote
March 19, 1920
Treaty Lodge Reservations