PHONETICSPhonetics : The study of the sounds in the production of human speech Articulatory phonetics: The study of human speech apparatus PHONETICS Acoustics Phonetics: The study of how speech sounds are produced. Auditory phonetics: The study of how speech sounds are heard and perceive by brain.
SPEECH APARATUSHuman being have no organs that areused only for speech. The organs thatproduce speech sounds have evolvedprincipally to serve the life-sustainingprocesses of breathing and eating. Speechis secondary function of human “speechapparatus” and in this sense it issometimes said to be parasitic on theseorgans.
Place of articulation Since all consonants are the result of constriction at some point in the vocal tract, they can all be said to have location. The point at which a sound is produced or articulated is known as its place of articulation. This is normally one of the fixed structures of our oral cavity, such as hard palate or alveolar. The constriction is caused by moving an articulator ( usually tongue) to that location in order to obstruct the airflow.
Place of articulation The place of articulations are: Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
The Role of Larynx in SpeechThe first point where the airflow from thelungs encounters a controlled resistance isat the larynx, a structure of muscle andcartilage located at the upper end of thetrachea (windpipe). The resistance can becontrolled by the different position andtension in the vocal cords, two muscularbands of tissue that stretch from front toback within the larynx.
Manner of Articulations1. Stop. The airflow is completely stopped at some point within the oral cavity followed by sudden air release (plosive).2. Nasal. The oral stops the airflow but let it pass through nasal cavity.3. Fricatives. The tongue raises to the point of articulation but leave a narrow groove for the air to escape.
Manner of Articulations4. Affricates. The combination between stop followed by fricative.5. Trill Rapid vibration of the tip
Quality of sound1. Voiced. The airstream makes the vocal cords vibrate.2. Voiceless The airstream do not make the vocal cords vibrate.