Phonology to be used


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By Prof. Nazeer Malik

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Phonology to be used

  1. 1. Phonology
  2. 2. What is Phonological Knowledge? <ul><li>We all have instinctual knowledge of the phonemes of our own language </li></ul><ul><li>It allows us to produce sounds that form meaningful utterances (even if they are new) </li></ul><ul><li>It allows us to recognize and understand a foreign accent </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is phonology? <ul><li>The study of the structure and systematic patterns of sounds in human language </li></ul>
  4. 4. It allows us to make up new words that “sound right” <ul><li>It allows us to make up new words that “sound right” </li></ul><ul><li>It allows us to add appropriate sounds to make plurals, past tense, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows us to know what is and what is not a sound in our own language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Branches of Phonology <ul><li>Phonemics : narrow study of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. [p h ] in peak , [p] in speak </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetics : broad study of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. /p/ in speak and peak </li></ul>
  6. 6. Essential Terms in Phonology <ul><li>Phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Allophones </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive features </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable structure </li></ul><ul><li>Phonotactics </li></ul><ul><li>Morphophonemics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Phonemes <ul><li>Distinctive or contrastive sound (phonological segment) in the sound system of a language. PHONE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Phonetic Segment Occurring in Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHONEME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Segment that differentiates meaning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How to distinguish phonemes? <ul><li>Place of articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. /p/ VS /t/ </li></ul><ul><li>p op VS t op </li></ul><ul><li>Manner of articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. /b/ VS /m/ </li></ul><ul><li>B ob VS m ob </li></ul><ul><li>Voicing </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. /s/ VS /z/ </li></ul><ul><li>S ue VS z oo </li></ul>
  9. 9. An Allophone <ul><li>An Allophone is: </li></ul><ul><li>A predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>It is rule-governed </li></ul><ul><li>An Allophone is Predictable, Nondistinctive and Redundant </li></ul>
  10. 10. Allophone <ul><li>An alternative pronunciation or a variant of a phoneme. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. /p/ - [p h ] p en </li></ul><ul><li>- [p] s p y </li></ul><ul><li>/t/ - [t h ] t op </li></ul><ul><li>- [t] s t op </li></ul><ul><li>- [?] bi tt en </li></ul><ul><li>- [D] bu tt er </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aspiration in English <ul><li>Aspiration in English is another example of a predictable, allophonic rule </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs with certain consonants at the beginning of a word (if the syllable is stressed) </li></ul><ul><li>Presence/Absence of Aspirated Consonant does not change the meaning of the word </li></ul>
  12. 12. Minimal Pairs <ul><li>A pair of words that differ by just one phoneme in the same position and have different meanings . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. s ip VS z ip </li></ul><ul><li>t ip VS d ip </li></ul>
  13. 13. Distinctive Features <ul><li>Phonetic properties or features that distinguish phonemes from one another </li></ul>
  14. 14. Distinctive Features of English Consonants <ul><li>Syllabic </li></ul><ul><li>Consonantal </li></ul><ul><li>Sonorant </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruent </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced </li></ul><ul><li>Continuant </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Affricate </li></ul><ul><li>Labial </li></ul><ul><li>Round </li></ul><ul><li>Coronal </li></ul>
  15. 16. Distinctive Features of English Vowels <ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul><ul><li>Round </li></ul><ul><li>Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Lax </li></ul>
  16. 17. Phonotactics <ul><li>Study of the sound and phoneme combinations allowed in a given language. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonotactic Constraints : the rules that characterize permissible syllable structures in a language. </li></ul>
  17. 18. What is a syllable? <ul><li>A phonological unit that is composed of one or more phonemes. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Examples of Phonotactic Constraints <ul><ul><li>1) After Consonants like /b/, /g/, /k/, or /p/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>another stop is not permitted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) If a word begins with /l/ or /r/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every speaker knows the next letter will be a vowel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) If word begins with /c&/ or /j&/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The next letter will be a vowel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) No more than three consonants Allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even this restricted to the following sequence: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/s/ + /p, t, k/ + /r, l, w, y/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Phonotactic Constraints in English <ul><li>VC : on, at, out </li></ul><ul><li>VCC : ant, oust </li></ul><ul><li>CV : to, shoe </li></ul><ul><li>CCV : spy, snow </li></ul><ul><li>CVC : tin, chap </li></ul><ul><li>CVCC : part, tenth </li></ul><ul><li>CCVC : spin, cloud, pride </li></ul><ul><li>CCCVC : splash, spread, split </li></ul><ul><li>CCCVCCC : scripts, sprints </li></ul>
  20. 21. Syllable Structure
  21. 22. Syllable Structure
  22. 23. Syllable Structure of “book”
  23. 24. Syllable Structure of “pumpkin”
  24. 25. Syllable Structure of “splints”
  25. 26. Morphophonemics <ul><li>pertaining to the alternation or change of one phoneme to another in a particular environment. For example, the change of the phoneme / k / to / s / before front vowels, which can be seen in the words &quot; electric &quot; and </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; electric-ity &quot;, is morphophonemic </li></ul><ul><li>A study of a phonemic difference among allomorphs of the same morpheme. It describes changes in pronunciation modified by neighboring sounds . </li></ul><ul><li>Morphophonemic Rule : the rule that assigns the phonetic form, determined by both morphology and phonology </li></ul>
  26. 27. English Plural Morphemes /s/ <ul><li>voiceless phonemes + [s] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. boo k s, ra t s, for k s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>voiced phonemes + [z] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. jo b s, do g s, pumpki n s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tense vowels, or diphthongs + [z] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. toe s , z oo s, b oy s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[+strident] + [ ә z] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. chur ch es, gara g es, ju dg es, cour s es </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Negative Prefix in- <ul><li>[ I n] + vowels or alveolar </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. in e xpensive, in t olerant </li></ul><ul><li>[ I m] + labials </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. im p ossible, im m ature </li></ul><ul><li>[ I ŋ] + velars </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. in c omparable, in c omplete </li></ul>