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INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS
6TH MEETING: PHONETICS
(ORGAN OF SPEECH AND SEGMENTAL SOUNDS)
By:
Edi Brata
Mathla’ul Anwar Un...
What is Phonetics?1
Organ of Speech2
Segmental Sounds
(Vowel, Diphthongs, and Consonants)3
Overview
Consonants Articulatio...
What is Phonetics?
Sound
Study
Phonetics
Phonology/
Phonemics
What is Phonetics?
Phonology
Phonetics
Phonemics
What is Phonetics?
• The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds
(Yule, 2006:30)
• The study of speech sound...
What is Phonetics?
The study of sounds production
Phonetics Acoustics
Auditory
Articulatory
Acoustics
(Transmission of speech
sounds through the air)
Auditory
(Perception of Sounds)
Articulatory
(Production of speech sounds)
Production/
Articulatory
Transmission/
Acoustics
Perception/
Auditory
Articulatory
Phonetics
Organ of Speech
Lip (Labium)  Labial
1
2
1. Upper Teeth (Dentum)  Dental
2. Lower Teeth (Dentum)  Dental
3. Uvula  Uvular
4. Blade of the Tongue (Laminum) ...
Uvula  Uvular
1. Tip (apex)  apikal
2. Blade (lamina/ laminum)  laminal
3. Middle (medium)  medial
4. Back (dorsum)  dorsal
Subdivis...
Ridge (Alveolum)  Alveolar
Soft Palate (Velum)  Velar
Hard Palate (Palatum)  Palatal
SEGMENTAL SOUNDS
Vowels
Produced with
a relatively
free flow of air
Consonants
Formed when
the air stream
is restricted at
some points
betwe...
ARTICULATION
(Consonants)
Consonants
Articulation
•Voicing
•Place of Articulation
•Manner of Articulation
Voicing
Voiced
Sounds
which are
made with
vocal fold
vibration
Voiceless
Sounds
made
without
vocal fold
vibration
Place of Articulation
Bilabial
The lower and
upper lips approach
or touch each other
as in the
sounds [p], [b],
and [m]
Place of Articulation
Labiodental
The lower lip
approaches or
touches the upper
teeth as in the
sounds [f] and [v]
Place of Articulation
Dental and
Interdental
The tip or blade of
the tongue
approaches or
touches the upper
teeth as in th...
Place of Articulation
Alveolar
The tongue tip
approaches or touches
the alveolar ridge, the
ridge immediately
behind the u...
Place of Articulation
Palatal
The body of the tongue approaches or touches the hard
palate as in [j]. The tongue body appr...
Place of Articulation
Velar
The body of the tongue
approaches or touches
the soft palate, or velum
as in [k], [ɡ], and [ŋ].
Place of Articulation
Glottal
The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds. In
an [h], this opening is narrow enough...
Oral Nasal
(Velum is lowered, allowing air to
enter the nasal cavity)
Manners of Articulation
Manners of Articulation:
Bilabial: p b Alveolar: t d Velar: k g
Plosives (Think Explosion) or Stops
Manners of Articulation:
Fricatives (Think Friction)
Labiodental: f v Alveolar: s z Palato-alveolar or
post-alveolar: ʃ Ʒ
Manners of Articulation:
Nasal
Bilabial: m Velar: ŋAlveolar: n
Manners of Articulation:
Affricatives
A combination of stop + fricative:
ʧ = voiceless post-alveolar affricate
ʤ = voiced ...
Manners of Articulation:
Approximant
Articulators approach each other but
do not touch: w r j
Manners of Articulation:
Lateral
Also called lateral approximant; air
flows over sides of tongue: l
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)
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Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)

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The sixth meeting material. It is the first of two phonetics courses. The topic is about organ of speech, segments features of sounds, and articulation (voicing, place and manner).

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Intro. to Linguistics_6 Phonetics (Organ of Speech, Segment, Articulation)

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS 6TH MEETING: PHONETICS (ORGAN OF SPEECH AND SEGMENTAL SOUNDS) By: Edi Brata Mathla’ul Anwar University
  2. 2. What is Phonetics?1 Organ of Speech2 Segmental Sounds (Vowel, Diphthongs, and Consonants)3 Overview Consonants Articulation (Voicing, Place, and Manner)4
  3. 3. What is Phonetics? Sound Study Phonetics Phonology/ Phonemics
  4. 4. What is Phonetics? Phonology Phonetics Phonemics
  5. 5. What is Phonetics? • The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds (Yule, 2006:30) • The study of speech sounds (Fromkin et.al., 2005:222) • The inventory and structure of the sounds speech (O’Grady et.al, 2005:15) • The concrete, instrumentally measurable physical properties and production of speech sounds (Odden, 2005:4) • The study of production, transmission and reception of speech sounds (Todd, 1995:13)
  6. 6. What is Phonetics? The study of sounds production
  7. 7. Phonetics Acoustics Auditory Articulatory
  8. 8. Acoustics (Transmission of speech sounds through the air)
  9. 9. Auditory (Perception of Sounds)
  10. 10. Articulatory (Production of speech sounds)
  11. 11. Production/ Articulatory Transmission/ Acoustics Perception/ Auditory
  12. 12. Articulatory Phonetics
  13. 13. Organ of Speech
  14. 14. Lip (Labium)  Labial
  15. 15. 1 2 1. Upper Teeth (Dentum)  Dental 2. Lower Teeth (Dentum)  Dental 3. Uvula  Uvular 4. Blade of the Tongue (Laminum)  Laminal 5. Back of the Tongue (Dorsum)  Dorsal 6. Middle of the Tongue (Medium)  Medium 7. Tip of the Tongue (Apex)  Apikal 3 5 6 7 4
  16. 16. Uvula  Uvular
  17. 17. 1. Tip (apex)  apikal 2. Blade (lamina/ laminum)  laminal 3. Middle (medium)  medial 4. Back (dorsum)  dorsal Subdivisions of the Tongue
  18. 18. Ridge (Alveolum)  Alveolar
  19. 19. Soft Palate (Velum)  Velar Hard Palate (Palatum)  Palatal
  20. 20. SEGMENTAL SOUNDS
  21. 21. Vowels Produced with a relatively free flow of air Consonants Formed when the air stream is restricted at some points between the vocal cords and the lips Difthongs ‘Combined’ vowel sounds SEGMENTAL SOUNDS
  22. 22. ARTICULATION (Consonants)
  23. 23. Consonants Articulation •Voicing •Place of Articulation •Manner of Articulation
  24. 24. Voicing Voiced Sounds which are made with vocal fold vibration Voiceless Sounds made without vocal fold vibration
  25. 25. Place of Articulation Bilabial The lower and upper lips approach or touch each other as in the sounds [p], [b], and [m]
  26. 26. Place of Articulation Labiodental The lower lip approaches or touches the upper teeth as in the sounds [f] and [v]
  27. 27. Place of Articulation Dental and Interdental The tip or blade of the tongue approaches or touches the upper teeth as in the sounds [θ] and [ð]
  28. 28. Place of Articulation Alveolar The tongue tip approaches or touches the alveolar ridge, the ridge immediately behind the upper teeth as in the sounds [t], [d], and [n], [s], [z] and [l]
  29. 29. Place of Articulation Palatal The body of the tongue approaches or touches the hard palate as in [j]. The tongue body approaches the hard palate, but closely enough to create turbulence in the airstream.
  30. 30. Place of Articulation Velar The body of the tongue approaches or touches the soft palate, or velum as in [k], [ɡ], and [ŋ].
  31. 31. Place of Articulation Glottal The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds. In an [h], this opening is narrow enough to create some turbulence in the airstream flowing past the vocal folds.
  32. 32. Oral Nasal (Velum is lowered, allowing air to enter the nasal cavity) Manners of Articulation
  33. 33. Manners of Articulation: Bilabial: p b Alveolar: t d Velar: k g Plosives (Think Explosion) or Stops
  34. 34. Manners of Articulation: Fricatives (Think Friction) Labiodental: f v Alveolar: s z Palato-alveolar or post-alveolar: ʃ Ʒ
  35. 35. Manners of Articulation: Nasal Bilabial: m Velar: ŋAlveolar: n
  36. 36. Manners of Articulation: Affricatives A combination of stop + fricative: ʧ = voiceless post-alveolar affricate ʤ = voiced post-alveolar affricate
  37. 37. Manners of Articulation: Approximant Articulators approach each other but do not touch: w r j
  38. 38. Manners of Articulation: Lateral Also called lateral approximant; air flows over sides of tongue: l

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