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Branches of linguistics

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Various branches of linguistics

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Branches of linguistics

  1. 1. BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS1 By Ashish Prasad & Apurv Verma
  2. 2. WHAT IS LINGUISTICS? Scientific study of human language. Aims of linguistic theory:  What is knowledge of language? (Competence)  How is knowledge of language acquired? (Acquisition)  How is knowledge of language put to use? (Performance/language processing) 2
  3. 3. LANGUAGE“Language is a purely human andnon-instinctive method ofcommunicating ideas, emotions anddesires by means of voluntarilyproduced symbols.”--Edward Sapir (1884-1939):Language: An Introduction to theStudy of Speech (1921) 3
  4. 4. “From now on I will considerlanguage to be a set (finite orinfinite) of sentences, eachfinite in length and constructedout of a finite set of elements.”--Noam Chomsky (1928- ):Syntactic Structures (1957) 4
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE The most important tool ever invented.  Distinguishes us from other creatures.  Provides a medium to think effectively, communicate interpersonally and collaborate with other people in work. Impossible to imagine a world without language. 5
  6. 6. LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD 6
  7. 7. MAIN BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics 7
  8. 8. PHONETICS Phonetics studies speech sounds, including  Production of speech, that is how speech sounds are actually made : Articulatory Phonetics  Transmission and receipt of speech : Acoustic Phonetics and  Perception of the transmitted sound by human brain : Auditory Phonetics. 8
  9. 9. PHONOLOGY Studies the sound system of languages.  Distinctive sounds within a language,  Nature of sound systems across the languages. Phoneme (from the Greek: φώνημα, phōnēma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances. 9
  10. 10. MORPHOLOGY Studies the formation of words from smaller units called morphemes. Morpheme: minimal meaningful language unit. Phoneme(s): smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound) in spoken language. Grapheme(s): written symbol to represent speech. 10
  11. 11. SYNTAX Rules that govern the formation of sentences from words. Syntactic phrases include:  Noun Phrase : a tall man, the bus  Verb Phrase : roam around, hit the ball  Prepositional Phrase : in the class, at the club  Adjective Phrase : Very good, nice girl The Grammatical Rules:  SOV: eg. Hindi  SVO: eg . English 11
  12. 12. GRAMMAR The syntax of a language deals with the grammatical structure of a language. Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves.  Descriptive grammar : structure actually used by speakers and writers.  Prescriptive grammar : structure that should be used. 12
  13. 13. HIERARCHY OF LANGUAGE: STRATIFICATION  Phonemes  Syllables  Morphemes  Words  Phrases  Clauses  Sentences/utterances  Texts/discourses 13
  14. 14. SEMANTICS Study of language meaning. Concerned with not only the meaning of words, but also that of morphemes and of sentences. Lexical semantics study how and what the words of a language denote. 14
  15. 15. SEMANTIC RELATIONS 15
  16. 16. EXAMPLES Pretty and attractive are synonyms. Good and bad are antonyms. Animal is a hypernym of mammal which is a hypernym of dog. Dog is a hyponym of mammal which is a hyponym of animal. Bark is a meronym of tree which is a meronym of forest. Forest is a holonym of tree which is a holonym of bark. 16
  17. 17. PRAGMATICS Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context. How language is used to communicate rather than how it is internally structured. Govern a number of conversational interactions, such as sequential organization, repair of errors, role and speech acts. 17
  18. 18. REFERENCES en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistics en.citizendium.org/wiki/Linguistics Lecture Slides 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU 19

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