Branches of linguistics


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Various branches of linguistics

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  • Linguistics is a science.
  • Edward Sapir (pronounced /səˈpɪər/), (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German-born Americananthropologist-linguist and a leader in American structural linguistics. His name is borrowed in what is now called the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.He believed that language and the thoughts that we have are somehow interwoven, and that all people are equally being effected by the confines of their language. In short, he made all people out to be mental prisoners; unable to think freely because of the restrictions of their vocabularies.
  • Example:Noam Chomsky, is an American linguist, philosopher,[2][3]cognitive scientist, and political activist. He is an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[4] Chomsky is well known in the academic and scientific community as one of the fathers of modern linguistics,
  • Next slide: there are many definitions of language. Among them we have selected the two most prominent ones. One given by Sapir and other by Chomsky.
  • Why should there be different languages? Blending of cultures. Eg. Urdu.Light Blue: Indo Aryan,Red: Germanic Languages (major lang. English, German), Blue: (Romance Languages Romance languages are the continuation of Vulgar Latin, the popular sociolect of Latin spoken by soldiers, settlers and merchants of the Roman Empire, as distinguished from the Classical form of the language spoken by the Roman upper classes, the form in which the language was generally written. )Green: Niger-Congo languages.
  • Phonetics was studied as early as 500 BC in ancient India, with Pāṇini's account of the placeand manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification.Describe each of them in detail.Common Myth:In a stress-timed language, syllables may last different amounts of time, but there is perceived to be a fairly constant amount of time (on average) between consecutive stressed syllables.A syllable-timed language is a language whose syllables take approximately equal amounts of time to pronounce.Peter Roach, now an emeritus professor of phonetics at Reading University in England, has been studying speech perception throughout his career. And what has he found out? That there's "no real difference between different languages in terms of sounds per second in normal speaking cycles."But surely, you're saying, there's a rhythmical difference between English (which is classed as a "stress-timed" language) and, say, French or Spanish (classed as "syllable-timed"). Indeed, Roach says, "it usually seems that syllable-timed speech sounds faster than stress-timed to speakers of stress-timed languages. So Spanish, French, and Italian sound fast to English speakers, but Russian and Arabic don't."However, different speech rhythms don't necessarily mean different speaking speeds. Studies suggest that "languages and dialects just sound faster or slower, without any physically measurable difference. The apparent speed of some languages might simply be an illusion.“Phonetics has three main branches:articulatory phonetics: concerned with the positions and movements of the lips, tongue, vocal tract and folds and other speech organs in producing speech. acoustic phonetics: concerned with the properties of the sound waves and how they are received by the inner ear. auditory phonetics: concerned with speech perception, principally how the brain forms perceptual representations of the input it receives
  • The difference between phonetics and phonology is that phonetics deals with the physical production of these sounds while phonology is the study of sound patterns and their meanings both within and across languages.Phonetics is strictly physical while phonology also pays attention to the function or meaning of a sound.Phonetics only asks, “Does this sound go here or not?” Phonology asks, “Does the meaning change if I put this sound here instead of that one?” Phonetics makes a pretty general description of sounds and can be used to describe sounds in any language. Phonology makes very detailed descriptions of sounds, so each language has its own unique set of symbols (because no two languages use all of the exact same sounds).Phonology, on the other hand, is both physical and meaningful. It explores the differences between sounds that change the meaning of an utterance. For example, the word “bet” is very similar to the word “bed” in terms of the physical manifestation of sounds. The only difference is that at the end of “bet,” the vocal chords stop vibrating so that sound is a result only of the placement of the tongue behind the teeth and the flow of air. However, the meanings of the two words are not related in the leastPhonology (from Ancient Greek: φωνή, phōnḗ, "voice, sound" and λόγος, lógos, "word, speech, subject of discussion") is, broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with "the sounds of language"Phoneme: Any of the perceptuallydistinctunits of sound in a specifiedlanguage that distinguish one word from another, for examplep, b, d, and t in the Englishwordspad, pat, bad, and bat.
  • Morphology: Minimal meaningful language unit; it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful unitsCat is the basemorphene and s is the suffix.
  • These rules specify word order, sentence organization, and the relationship between word order, word classes and other sentence elements.
  • During the Middle Ages, grammar was often used to describe learning in general, including the magical, occult practices popularly associated with the scholars of the day. People in Scotland pronounced grammar as "glam-our," and extended the association to mean magical beauty or enchantment.In the 19th century, the two versions of the word went their separate ways, so that our study of English grammar today may not be quite as glamorous as it used to be.
  • “The aspects of things that are most important to us are hidden because of their simplicity and familiarity.”A syllable is a unit of pronunciation uttered without interruption,[1] loosely, a single sound. [2] All words are made from at least one syllable.Monosyllables have only one vowel sound; polysyllables have more than one. If a syllable ends with a consonant, it is called a closed syllable. If a syllable ends with a vowel, it is called an open syllable. Patterns of syllables can be shown with C and V (C for 'consonant', V for 'vowel'). Closed syllables are shown as CVC, open syllables CV. Some languages like English have many kinds of closed syllables. Some languages like Japanese have few kinds of closed syllables.There are many words in English that have only one
  • to trim and to slice are troponyms of to cutman and woman are coordinate terms since they share human as hypernymFrenchman and Englishman are coordinate terms since they share nationality as hypernym
  • Branches of linguistics

    1. 1. BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS1 By Ashish Prasad & Apurv Verma
    2. 2. WHAT IS LINGUISTICS? Scientific study of human language. Aims of linguistic theory:  What is knowledge of language? (Competence)  How is knowledge of language acquired? (Acquisition)  How is knowledge of language put to use? (Performance/language processing) 2
    3. 3. LANGUAGE“Language is a purely human andnon-instinctive method ofcommunicating ideas, emotions anddesires by means of voluntarilyproduced symbols.”--Edward Sapir (1884-1939):Language: An Introduction to theStudy of Speech (1921) 3
    4. 4. “From now on I will considerlanguage to be a set (finite orinfinite) of sentences, eachfinite in length and constructedout of a finite set of elements.”--Noam Chomsky (1928- ):Syntactic Structures (1957) 4
    5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE The most important tool ever invented.  Distinguishes us from other creatures.  Provides a medium to think effectively, communicate interpersonally and collaborate with other people in work. Impossible to imagine a world without language. 5
    7. 7. MAIN BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics 7
    8. 8. PHONETICS Phonetics studies speech sounds, including  Production of speech, that is how speech sounds are actually made : Articulatory Phonetics  Transmission and receipt of speech : Acoustic Phonetics and  Perception of the transmitted sound by human brain : Auditory Phonetics. 8
    9. 9. PHONOLOGY Studies the sound system of languages.  Distinctive sounds within a language,  Nature of sound systems across the languages. Phoneme (from the Greek: φώνημα, phōnēma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances. 9
    10. 10. MORPHOLOGY Studies the formation of words from smaller units called morphemes. Morpheme: minimal meaningful language unit. Phoneme(s): smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound) in spoken language. Grapheme(s): written symbol to represent speech. 10
    11. 11. SYNTAX Rules that govern the formation of sentences from words. Syntactic phrases include:  Noun Phrase : a tall man, the bus  Verb Phrase : roam around, hit the ball  Prepositional Phrase : in the class, at the club  Adjective Phrase : Very good, nice girl The Grammatical Rules:  SOV: eg. Hindi  SVO: eg . English 11
    12. 12. GRAMMAR The syntax of a language deals with the grammatical structure of a language. Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves.  Descriptive grammar : structure actually used by speakers and writers.  Prescriptive grammar : structure that should be used. 12
    13. 13. HIERARCHY OF LANGUAGE: STRATIFICATION  Phonemes  Syllables  Morphemes  Words  Phrases  Clauses  Sentences/utterances  Texts/discourses 13
    14. 14. SEMANTICS Study of language meaning. Concerned with not only the meaning of words, but also that of morphemes and of sentences. Lexical semantics study how and what the words of a language denote. 14
    16. 16. EXAMPLES Pretty and attractive are synonyms. Good and bad are antonyms. Animal is a hypernym of mammal which is a hypernym of dog. Dog is a hyponym of mammal which is a hyponym of animal. Bark is a meronym of tree which is a meronym of forest. Forest is a holonym of tree which is a holonym of bark. 16
    17. 17. PRAGMATICS Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context. How language is used to communicate rather than how it is internally structured. Govern a number of conversational interactions, such as sequential organization, repair of errors, role and speech acts. 17
    18. 18. REFERENCES Lecture Slides 18
    19. 19. THANK YOU 19