Unlocking Teachers Potential


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Faculty Development Workshop Presentation on student myths, reading, etc.

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Unlocking Teachers Potential

  1. 1. Unlocking Our Potential Faculty Development at The Art Institute of California- San Diego
  2. 2. What’s Up Today <ul><li>Where do you see the need for improvements? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Survey Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Some Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of The Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating, Discussions, Presentation Skills, Meaningful Learning, Learner Centered Education, Getting Students to Read, and the Ever-Present Critiques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro-Managing: The Weekly Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>On-Line Faculty Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. and.... <ul><li>Preparing the IDEA Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting the Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Manipulating” (managing) the Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepping for Day One and Beyond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That’s All Folks! ;-) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Let’s Get Started! Survey Says . . . !
  5. 5. Greatest Strengths... <ul><li>Work with students individually </li></ul><ul><li>Great discussions/ Thinking “outside the box” </li></ul><ul><li>Expect a lot from my students/Get to know my students </li></ul><ul><li>Congenial, funny, approachable/Care about students </li></ul><ul><li>Fully answering questions </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication of technical subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Showing examples </li></ul><ul><li>Passion, belief in Students </li></ul><ul><li>Patience, Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of subject paired w/easygoing nature </li></ul><ul><li>My Gluteus Maximus, Sense of Humor, Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Interest in the Subject </li></ul>
  6. 6. Greatest Need for Improvement... <ul><li>Demonstrations of material outside my subject area </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Learn more programs, web-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>More info on dovetailing courses & instructors </li></ul><ul><li>More communication & tracking of students between courses/class sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Getting ahead of oneself-Providing too much info </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline-not being so sweet & understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture, Focus, New Ideas and Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>More computer literacy-I’m a pencil & brush person </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Communication, overcoming student’s fear </li></ul><ul><li>Developing good rapport with students </li></ul><ul><li>Being Too Critical - Experience </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Do YOU Think Needs to Be Done to Improve Ourselves? BRAINSTORM
  8. 8. And Now the Research
  9. 9. Motivating Students <ul><li>Motivated Students are Easier to Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation Comes From Within and Without </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is Rarely Changed Drastically in a Short Amount of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Motivated Students have Stronger and More Positive Self Images </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated Students Make Better Decisions in all Areas of Their Lives </li></ul>
  10. 10. Motivating Students, contd. <ul><li>Students stated that they were motivated when teachers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explained course material clearly and to the point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made it clear they wanted to help the student learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changed approaches to meet new situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarized material in a manner that aided retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrated the importance and significance of the subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made it clear how each topic fit into the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clearly stated the objectives of the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used humor in a way appreciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found ways to help students answer their own questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced stimulating ideas about the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was available to help students individually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explained the reasons for criticisms of student’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So it is NOT just showmanship! </li></ul><ul><li>So, how will YOU motivate? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Improving Discussions <ul><li>Discussions are vital in the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback about student learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps students develop interests and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students become a more Active Participant in their own education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For effective discussions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the topic and be prepared to lead it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common experiences that students can relate to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s primary role is Facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’ve covered the material in lecture, now let them chew on it for a while </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Improving Discussions, contd. <ul><li>Facilitating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to the points the students raise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe who is responding to whom, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for pauses and silences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify what students are saying, summarize it on the board at times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request examples and illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require students to support their decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use open-ended questions and “divergent” (no right answer) questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a summary/conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Improving Discussions, contd. <ul><li>But remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient and sensitive to feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge, but not threaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t focus on a single student for too long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid premature agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use personal anecdotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be silent, but be ready to inquire, paraphrase and deal with conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can you use discussion in your class? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Improving Teacher Presentation Skills <ul><li>Delivery supports the content best when it appears to be natural and much like ordinary conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Be Yourself....only better </li></ul><ul><li>Use the voice AND the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your nonverbal cues speak volumes to the students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your quality of voice can capture or drive away the attention of your students </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Improving Teacher Presentation Skills Vocal Delivery <ul><li>Speak Loud Enough (but not TOO loudly) </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate precisely enough that you are understood </li></ul><ul><li>Speak at a pace that holds attention, but doesn’t lose the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the deadly “ums,” “ahs,” and “uhs.” </li></ul><ul><li>Vary the pitch, don’t fall into monotone </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the sing-song quality of falling into a rising and lowering of pitch pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the meaning, rather than the sound of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Be conversational </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down when explaining complex or difficult material </li></ul><ul><li>Pause to allow students to understand and emphasize important content </li></ul>
  16. 16. Improving Teacher Presentation Skills Use of Body <ul><li>Be sure they can see you. Don’t hide behind the podium </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be too static, but don’t get frantic </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the constant walk and distracting hand and arm gestures - avoid the repetitive gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid negative facial expressions (especially when answering questions!) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid distracting the audience by letting yourself be distracted </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t look at your notes more than 20% of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Make true eye contact with the students </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that your personal appearance and clothing convey the image you wish to project </li></ul><ul><li>Use your body and gestures to reinforce the subject matter </li></ul>
  19. 19. Learner-Centered Education Learner-centered implies that the learner is actively engaged in the process of knowledge construction. Learning is an active, exciting process that can be difficult, frustrating and challenging but is not inherently boring. Boredom sets in when learning is reduced to repetitive actions or assignments that are disconnected from larger goals or contexts. Skill development requires some amount of practice but practice is motivated by performance. The player who shoots baskets or blocks shots in practice has visions of how these skills will play out in the next game. The game provides the attitude and motivation to practice hard. In the context of the classroom, performance is often reduced to memory exercises on tests... New Designs for Connected Teaching and Learning - Margaret Riel
  20. 20. Learner-Centered Education <ul><li>Teaching large groups of students via formal lectures is not the ideal way to encourage a deep approach to learning. Lecturing is a one-way transmission of information. It does not provide opportunities for students to engage in a continuing dialogue with the lecturer, where their conceptions can be shaped through feedback. Nor does it allow students to actively APPLY and EXPERIMENT with their conceptions or to reflect on experiences and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  21. 21. Learner-Centered Education <ul><li>Learner-centered education targets instructional strategies that elicit and build upon students’ interests and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>We all learn most effectively when we are designing or creating things in which we have substantial control. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell Resnick from MIT states “Teachers need to design things that enable students to design things” (Resnick 1996). These strategies are know as project-based learning, engaged learning, or CONSTRUCTIVISM </li></ul><ul><li>As students become active participants, in their own learning, they feel more related to what they are learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Research demonstrates that responsibility grows from being aware of this relatedness. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, as students become more active in their own learning, they take more direct responsibility for their work and their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>SCCOE Internet Issues, 2001 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Learner-Centered Education <ul><li>Educators have written and put into practice teaching strategies based on the strong link between experience and learning, the most known… Maria Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism is a term applied to strategies that connect cognitive development with learning activities, where students experience their work as discovery and knowledge creation. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way learner-centered refers to lessons where the central focus is the work of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators creating learner-centered activities are in a very real sense, pioneers. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching becomes listening and observing and skillfully encouraging students to demonstrate how they are learning and creating new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>SCCOE Internet Issues, 2001 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Instructivist vs. Constructivists <ul><li>INSTRUCTIVISM - Considered to deny the importance of internal states in learning </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTIVISM - is concerned with the learner’s internal states </li></ul><ul><li>Does teaching occur if a student did not learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  24. 24. Instructivist <ul><li>Students learn as a result of instruction, so the should be instructed </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction should include lectures and textbooks, taught sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a stimulus-response association </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching strategies include feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented learning </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are structured into a hierarchy, from memorization (lowest) to synthesis (highest) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning tasks reduced into individual components </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks must be mastered independently then assembled. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  25. 25. Constructivists <ul><li>Learning is both and individual and social process. </li></ul><ul><li>Students decide what they learn by setting personal learning goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Students create their own meaningful knowledge as a result of their own activities and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies include, case-based learning, assignments and projects (…this is so Ai). </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom teaching is a stimulus to real learning that mostly takes place outside of class. </li></ul><ul><li>Students transform new information into a form that makes personal sense to them and connects to prior knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  26. 26. … and in English please… <ul><li>Surface Approach (instructivist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorization and formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on parts rather than whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deep approach (constructivist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to relate knowledge to EXPERIENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning as an active process (not just one way) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. In practice… <ul><li>Emphasize higher-level intellectual skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Showing students not just telling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After showing, make them DO IT! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signposting for clear direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop, recap and move on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create links between what was learned and what will come </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make class more interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include teaching activities that promote cognitive challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions, get feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  28. 28. In practice… <ul><li>Match assessments to course objectives and course description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach them what the course description and objectives state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less lecturing more active learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce lecture time, increase group based activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more interactive approaches, GET THEM INVOLVED, ASK QUESTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabi must be handed out on the first day, first order of business and you must thoroughly review (avg. 60 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabi must state their keys to success and what is expected of them as well as you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabi must state grading procedures and instructor should delineate how each grade letter is earned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner-Centered Teaching Strategies, Niki Foundry, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales, Australia </li></ul>
  29. 29. Getting Students to Read or, “Why Won’t They Buy/Open the Damn Textbook!?”
  30. 30. Reading Isn’t Natural to Some <ul><li>Students have difficulty at all levels of education comprehending texts. Because of the different types of texts and subjects, they need a guide in how to read the book and what to concentrate on. Be the guide. Take some time in class to show them how you read, highlight and notate the book as an example for them to follow. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Getting Students to Read <ul><li>Strategies for success... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures are NOT a repetition of the reading assignment and expect students to be prepared for the following class-otherwise they will not be able to enter into discussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you repeat all of the most important parts of the reading, they’ll know there’s no reason to prepare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give quizzes on the reading throughout the term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give students short in-class tasks based on reading assignments: peer pressure </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Getting Students to Read, contd. <ul><li>Strategies for success... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create meaningful homework assignments that require the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask students to submit one review question per page/paragraph every week and use those questions randomly to open discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can email you a pivotal question before class to be used in discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require students to write down most troublesome topic on 3x5 card which is used as “admission ticket” to class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require demo of relevant material in real world </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Myths and Magic of Student Critiques What You Don’t Know Can Infuriate You
  34. 34. Myths of Student Critiques <ul><li>MYTH: Students cannot make consistent judgments about the instructor/instruction because of their immaturity, lack of experience and capriciousness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: Evidence dating back to 1924 indicates that this commonly held belief is not true. Student ratings have proven to be quite stable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYTH: Most student rating schemes are nothing more than a popularity contest, with the warm, friendly and humorous instructor emerging as the winner every time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: Studies conducted since 1974 indicate that this is far from true. Other factors were much more influential (eg. organization, stimulation, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Myths of Student Critiques <ul><li>MYTH: Student rating forms are both unreliable and invalid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: Interestingly, for most student rating forms (such as our old early critique) this is true of “homemade” forms. However, professionally developed forms (eg. IDEA forms) are well-developed and highly accurate, reliable and valid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYTH: The size of the class affects student ratings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: Studies conducted since 1980 indicate that there is no relationship between class size and student ratings. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Myths of Student Critiques <ul><li>MYTH: Whether students take the course as a requirement or as an elective affects their ratings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: The bulk of literature tends to support this belief. However, the efforts of the instructor can overcome the negativity of a “required” course. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYTH: The grades or marks students receive in the course are highly correlated with their ratings of the course and the instructor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: This is the single most researched issue on students ratings with over 400 studies on this question to date. In most instances, the relationship between grades and critiques was weak at best and nonexistent at worst. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Myths of Student Critiques <ul><li>MYTH: Student ratings cannot meaningfully be used to improve instructional effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUTH: Instructors have significantly improved their ratings when personal consultations were provided. the key is that student ratings CAN be used to improve instruction if used as part of a personal consultation between the faculty member and a faculty development resource person. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The Weekly Assessment <ul><li>or, How to Avoid the Crash and Burn! </li></ul>
  39. 39. Weekly Assessment <ul><li>Students fill out short questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Students sign questionnaire - accountability for one’s comments should begin early in collegiate career. No more hiding behind anonymity if the true bottom line is to improve classroom experience and not simply to give students an opportunity to “sound off” when disgruntled. </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty can review each questionnaire session before turning them in to Lawrence’s “mailbox” at the end of the day, and we will review them via email or meet at a later time, or we can make arrangements to review them together that day. </li></ul><ul><li>LET’S EXAMINE AND DISCUSS THE HANDOUT </li></ul>
  40. 40. On-Line Faculty Development Program Let’s Go to The Lab and See How It’s Done
  41. 41. Preparing the IDEA Form for Success Planning Ahead Now Makes All the Difference Later
  42. 42. Nothing is More Important Than Objectives LET’S LOOK AT THE HANDOUT AND DISCUSS
  43. 43. DAY ONE It Makes All The Difference
  44. 44. What will you do to make DAY ONE a good day?
  45. 45. Thank You Be A SuperTeacher