Student Motivation Dr. Jennifer Irwin EDU 620: Module 9 Chapter 10
Do you ever feel like anentertainer rather than ateacher? Like you have tomotivate all of your students tolearn?
As you’ll see throughout thispresentation, motivation is (inmy opinion) a shared goal. It isNOT solely the responsibility ofthe teacher.
Motivation-related questions toponder . . .• What is motivation?• What motivates you?• Are you completely in control of your motivation? (if not, what other factors outside of yourself affect your motivation?)• Think about a time when you failed at something. Why did you fail? Who or what was responsible?• Is anxiety always a bad thing?• Do teachers have an effect on student motivation? How?• Is it important for students to feel motivated in the classroom?
“The greatest discovery of any generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitude.” William James Do you agree with this?How does this relate to motivation?
What is Motivation?Motivation . . . Activates (gets you going) Maintains (keeps you going) Guides (determines where you’re trying to go) . . . behavior over time
What is Motivation?• Motivation is one of the MOST critical components of learning.• Influenced by a student’s personality, abilities, the task itself, incentives for learning, the setting, and teachers’ behaviors.
Principles of Motivation• Students are more likely to be intrinsically motivated when they expect to succeed and believe that they have some choice and control.Example: allowing students to choose their own research topic instead of assigning it to them
Principles of Motivation• Students need to feel connected with others.Example: It is hard to feel motivated to do much of anything if you feel like an outsider in a classroom community
Principles of Motivation3. Students are more likely to pursue an activity when they see its relevance to their own interests and goals.Example: answering the age-old question, “when am I ever going to need to know this?”
Principles of Motivation• Students who truly want to master a domain are more likely to learn effectively than those who are mainly concerned with how they appear or how they compare with others.Example: the time you learned something just for the sake of learning it versus the time that you “learned” course material just to get a passing grade
Principles of Motivation5. Students who are emotionally involved in a topic usually learn and remember it better, but high levels of anxiety can be detrimental.Example: have you ever over-studied and been too anxious or stressed when taking a test and then ended up failing it?
Principles of Motivation• Students are most likely to put forth effort when they attribute successes and failures to factors over which they have control.Example: knowing that you passed or failed a test due entirely to the amount of effort you put in
Theories of Motivation• We will take a look at the following theories related to motivation: Behaviorism (it’s back!) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Attribution Theory Expectancy Theory Goals Orientation The Flow Model
Behaviorism & Motivation• Revisit our module on behaviorism• Behaviors reinforced in the past are likely to repeat• The value of reinforcement is determined by personal or situational factors (it all depends on the person)• The same things don’t motivate the same people (think back to positive reinforcement and punishment)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Growth Needs Deficiency Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Being a hierarchy, the needs at the bottom of the triangle must be met before you can move up to the next level.• Look carefully at the description for each level.• Deficiency Needs are critical to physical and psychological well-being• Growth Needs encompass the need to understand things, the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming Like the “be all you can be” Army motto!
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Keep in mind, that learning is a growth need!!• It won’t be a priority for students if they are lacking in their other needs.• How can we help our students meet their deficiency needs so that they can focus on learning? (notice that I said “help them” meet these needs rather than meeting these needs “for them”)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Here are some examples:• Physical (look for signs that a student might be chronically tired or hungry)• Security/Safety (have clear expectations and a stable classroom routine—remember that school may be a safe haven for some students)• Social (get to know each student individually)• Ego/Esteem (plan activities that will allow students to demonstrate their talents/strengths)
Attribution Theory• Have you ever met someone who blames all of their failures on people and events outside of themselves? Someone who never takes responsibility for their actions? (I’m talking to you old college roommate!!)• Have you also met someone who doesn’t give themselves enough credit for all of their hard work?
Attribution Theory• Attribution Theory seeks to understand the explanations and excuses of success and failure.• Based on many criteria, including “locus of control” (which can be internal or external)• Take a look at the diagram on the next slide that depicts 2 possible outcomes from taking a test and 4 possible explanations
Attribution Theory take a test pass fail INTERNAL locus of control I worked hard I didn’t study EXTERNAL locus of controlI was wearing my lucky socks The teacher hates me!
Expectancy Theory• Expectancy Theory: Motivation depends on person’s estimation of their chance for success and how much value they place on that achievement. If a student always gets an “A”, their motivation to study might be low because they expect to “always get the A.” If a student never gets an “A”, their motivation to study might be low, as well. That student expects to do poorly. Learned helplessness: extreme lack of motivation; student attempts to avoid failure again.
Goals Orientation Why are you taking this course?• Is it just a requirement that you have to check off?• Are you here to earn an “A”?OR• Perhaps you are here because you truly want to learn about the field of educational psychology and how to be a better teacher?
Goals Orientation• According to Carol Dweck (and others), students are oriented toward one of two kinds of goals in a learning situation• Performance Goals: student is motivated by the desire to gain recognition from others and earn good grades• Learning Goals: student is motivated by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvement• So which kind of goals do you have for this course?
The Flow Model• Have you ever been so engrossed in something that you lose track of time?• How do you feel after you’ve completed an enjoyable, yet challenging activity?• If you have ever experienced what I’m talking about, then you have been in the FLOW!
The Flow Model• Developed in the 1990s• by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (“mee-hah-lee” “chick-sent-me-high-ee”) from Hungary (what a great name!)• to describe an intensely motivated person• Definition: A state of optimal experience characterized by total concentration and absorption in a challenging activity that engenders a sense of control, interest, enjoyment, even exhilaration Sounds cool, huh?
The Flow Model• In order to understand this model, give an example of the following activities and think about how they made you feel: Something that is not challenging & requires little skill for it (making a sandwich) Something that is not challenging, but you have a lot of skill for it (attending a conference) Something that is very challenging, but you have little skill for it (reading a difficult textbook) Something that is very challenging & you have a lot of skill for it (writing a dissertation….although I didn’t always feel this way) • This is FLOW!
Teacher’s Role in Motivation• So now you know all these motivation theories, but what is your role in motivation as a teacher?• We will look at: The ARCS model Extrinsic & Intrinsic motivators Anxiety Teacher expectations
The ARCS Model• ARCS Model: Attention • capturing students’ interests and curiosity Relevance • meeting students’ personal needs and goals Confidence • helping students believe that they will succeed Satisfaction • reinforcing students’ accomplishments through extrinsic or intrinsic rewards• This model really captures the teacher’s role in motivation (notice that I said the teacher only plays role here and is not solely responsible for student motivation)
Extrinsic v. Intrinsic Motivators• Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivators Intrinsic: Learning for learning’s sake Extrinsic: Rewards for learning How do you motivate students? What are some common extrinsic rewards? Which type of motivator work best for you?• Keep in mind, research has shown that excessive use of extrinsic motivators can actually undermine students’ intrinsic motivation!
The Role of Anxiety in Performance• Is anxiety always a bad thing?• There is a curvilinear relationship between anxiety and performance A little bit is good, too much or not enough is bad Anxiety
The Role of Teacher Expectations• This is HUGE!• Students will only give you what you expect from them.• If you expect little, that’s exactly what you’re going to get!• Don’t be afraid to raise the bar, show them that you are confident in their ability to be successful (and let them know that you’ll be there to help them along the way)
One last note … What else can teachers do to increase student motivation? Set high and Recognize positive efforts and expectations for improvement students s Make learning meaningful and authentic Others….?
Any questions?For clarification or additional information, please review chapter 10, ask a classmate or contact the instructor