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  1. 1. Motivation: InLearning& Teaching
  2. 2. Outline Of Presentation What Is Motivation?Goal Orientation and Motivation Why Goals improve performance Goal Setting & Plan Making How to “PLAN” motivation
  3. 3.  Effective Lesson Planning. Principles for Good Lesson Planning. Models For Lesson Planning. Some tips for motivating students. Conclusion
  4. 4. Motivation Motivation defined: Internal state Arouses, directs, maintains behaviorIntrinsic / Extrinsic
  5. 5. Goal Orientation and Motivation
  6. 6. Why Goals Improve PerformanceDirect attention to the task at handMobilize effortIncrease persistencePromote development of new strategies
  7. 7. Goal Setting & Plan MakingGoal Goals and Plans A desired future state that we want to achieve.  What do we want?Plan  A blueprint of the actions necessary to reach the desired goal.  How do we get there?
  8. 8. How to “PLAN” Motivation The Correct Question… DON’T ASK: “What am I going to cover tomorrow?” DO ASK: “What are my students going to learn, achieve, and accomplish tomorrow?” The role of the teacher is not to cover. The role of the teacher is to UNCOVER.
  9. 9. Effective Lesson Planning what lesson planning is about? “Lesson planning means making decisions in advance about what to teach, how to teach and the time assignment of every teaching procedure “1) To help the teacher distinguish the various stages of a lesson and to see the relationship between them so that the lesson can move smoothly from one stage to another.2) The teacher also becomes aware of the teaching aids that are needed for the lesson.
  10. 10. 3. Lesson planning helps teachers to think about the relativevalue of different activities and how much time should bespent on them. The teacher soon learns to judge lesson stagesand phases with greater accuracy.4. The plan, with the teacher’s comments and corrections,provides a useful, time-saving reference when the teacher nextplans the same lesson.5. Lesson planning is a good practice and a sign ofprofessionalism. The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate.
  11. 11. Principles for Good Lesson Planning Aim: the realistic goals for the lesson Variety: various activities and materials to ensure high motivation and interest Flexibility: more teaching methods and techniques and do not just read your teaching plan Linkage: the teaching steps should be linked with each other. That is, there should be coherence.
  12. 12.  Learnability: the planned contents and tasks should be within the learning capability of the students. doing things that are beyond or below the students’ coping ability will diminish their motivation (Schumann, 1999) slightly higher than the present proficiency of the students
  13. 13. Which model to use for lesson planning  The 3P’s modelThe 3P’s model refers to presentation, practice and production. At the presentation stage, the teacher introduces new vocabulary and grammatical structures in whatever ways appropriate. At the practice stage, the lesson moves from controlled practice to guided practice and further to the exploitation of the text when necessary. At the production stage, the students are encouraged to use what they have learned and practiced to perform communicative tasks. The focus is on meaning rather than accurate use of language forms.
  14. 14. The 3-stage model 3-stage model is frequently adopted in reading lessons and listening lessons. It refers to pre- reading, while-reading and post-reading stages. The pre-stage involves preparation work, such as setting the scene, warming up, or providing key information (such as key words). The while-stage involves activities or tasks that the students must perform while they are reading or listening. The post-stage provides a chance for students to obtain feedback on their performance at the while-stage. This last stage may also involve some follow-up activities, in which students relate what they have read or heard to their own life and use the language spontaneously.
  15. 15. The five E learning Cycle ModelEngageme Object, event or question used to engage students.  nt Connections facilitated between what students know and can do.Exploratio Objects and phenomena are explored. n Hands-on activities, with guidance.Explanatio Students explain their understanding of concepts and processes. New concepts and skills are introduced as conceptual clarity and cohesion are n sought.Elaboratio Activities allow students to apply concepts in contexts, and build on or extend n understanding and skill. Students assess their knowledge, skills and abilities. Activities permit evaluation ofEvaluation student development and lesson effectiveness.
  16. 16. The ITB Model -- Into, Through and  Into: Beyond Focus attention on the topic Elicit curiosity, activate background knowledge Prepare for the main activity  Through Present material Students explore & construct meaning  Beyond Practice Analysis Application
  17. 17. The ESA Model -- Engage, Study, Activate  Sequence Variations of the ESA Model (from Harmer, 1998)
  18. 18. Activity First Phase: Teach a lesson without planning Second Phase: Make a lesson plan for the same lesson,  try to use AV Aids  teach the lesson through activities
  19. 19. A Simple “LESSON PLAN” – 3PModel Specific Objectives By the end of this lesson students will be able to identify adjectives & they would be able to use them in their own sentences Methodology : Communicative Method/ Audio-visual method/ Direct Method/ 5E Method, ITB Method………..Presentation: 5/7 minutesAt this stage teacher will unfold the topic to students, teacher will employ brain storming/or some other techniques.Practice: 15/17 MinutesAt this stage students will practice the concept by doing some exercise…..They will work in pairs/groups or individually. Teacher will move around the class & monitor their workProduction : 5/7At this stage teacher will ask questions from students to check whether or not they have acquired the skill/ knowledge. Home Work: Student will do ……… as home work.
  20. 20. Some tips for motivating students  Use Visual Behavior Tracking charts  Allow students to earn a “work free” speech session. e.g. no learning, just play  Challenge students to beat their own record for certain task.  Allow the students to be the expert by teaching a skill to younger students  Make tasks more hands-on, i.e. make them feel “we do stuff & make stuff & build stuff”  Treat a few students to a “special lunch party” with you as a reward/ motivator.
  21. 21. Behavior Tracking ChartGoals Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Satur Sun Marks day day nes day day day day dayGoodMannersListeningDon’t bedisrespectfulSayThankYou &PleaseNo HittingGreetings
  22. 22. Conclusion Motivation comes from within The Tips Are: Be Enthusiastic & Be Contagiously Enthusiastic Effective planning will provideyou the correct direction to pourthis enthusiasm in your pupil.