Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Institute of Nursing, MOH, UAE Ghada Hilarie Maha Mohamed M. Ismail
Objectives: Define motivation and differentiate between the two types of motivation. Discuss the basic principles of motivation that drive learning. Describe strategies that can enhance intrinsic motivation in students. Describe factors that contribute to students’ motivation. Promote student’s preparation for the class sessions. Evaluate students learning in the class sessions. Recognize different learning abilities and work with them individually? Recognize students’ different learning styles.
Objectives: Present your subject using a variety of learning theories and styles. Recognize students’ personal problems and help these students overcome them. Discuss ways in dealing with some of the disruptive students in the classroom; namely students who are angry, anxious, shy, or side- talking. Have deeper understanding of student cooperation. Facilitate Effective Group work. Handle the disruptive students. Know more about the importance of proper planning, class management, and pupils’ “interdependence”.
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Motivation
What is Motivation?An external or internal need or desire that operates on a person’s will causing them to act.
Types of Motivation An intrinsically motivated student is a student who undertakes a learning activity for its own sake, for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feeling of accomplishment it evokes. An extrinsically motivated student performs in order to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself such as grades, stickers, or teacher approval.
Motivation Principles that DriveLearning Incentives motivate learning Internal motivation is longer and more self- directive than is external motivation, which must be repeatedly reinforced by praise or concrete rewards Learning is more effective when an individual is ready to learn, that is, when one wants to know something Motivation is enhanced by the way in which the instructional material is organized
Success is more predictably motivating than is failure Because learning requires change in beliefs and behaviors, it normally produces a mild level of anxiety It is important to help each student set goals and to provide informative feedback regarding progress toward the goals Both affiliation and approval are strong motivators Many behaviors result from a combination of motives
There is no one single formula formotivating students since many factorscan affect students’ motivation to work and learn. However, teachers can enhance students’ intrinsic motivation. HOW?
Enhancing Students’ IntrinsicMotivation - 1 Give positive feedback frequently Give opportunities for success by assigning tasks that are neither too easy nor too difficult and reward success Assist learner to find personal meaning and value in the material Establish a positive, open classroom climate Help each individual feel like they belong and can contribute valuable information to the learning group Make students active participants in learning Ask students what makes their classes more or less motivating
Enhancing Students’ IntrinsicMotivation - 2 Tell students what they need to do to succeed in your course Hold high but realistic expectations for your students Avoid creating intense competition among students Be enthusiastic about your subject De-emphasize grades Vary your teaching methods
Teachers open doors…. (A Chinese proverb)ents enter by themselves.
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Preparation
How Do I Get My Students Preparefor the Class? Give them some kind of assignments Note that Assignments: Should be relevant Students are Accountable for it Not all are graded Give students short quizzes at the beginning of the session Ask students to write a response to the readings (questions, concerns …) Explain to them the value of preparation
Encourage students to use the library sessions for preparation: Include such session daily Guide them to how to find resources Orient new students on how to prepare, how to summarize or pick up important information from text. Investigate the reasons why some students are not preparing, come up with action plans, as well as counseling & referring. Observe students during class discussion. Establish a system of rewards for preparation.
How will I know if my students arelearning? Assess learning by: Doing tests Quizzes Class discussion Assignments & projects
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Learning Styles
How do I recognize different learning abilitiesand work with them individually? Recognize it EARLY in the course Ask students about their learning experience and challenges Provide supplementary material (optional) based on their level and performance Assignments should vary in the types of learning styles Don’t try to teach to the worst or the most advanced student Make your expectations clear; e.g. giving examples of good work done by other students
Learning Styles & Strategies As a teacher, you may find some difficulties make your lesson suit different styles of your students..
clc.co.nz How to suit the learning styles of your students??
Traditionally, schools present information in two ways: through language and through formulas involving numbers and logic
Psychologists, however, now say there is a problem with this.People have different strengths and different learning styles. For example, one person might struggle with information in a paragraph but understand it immediately in a diagram. Another person will struggle with the diagram but not with the paragraph..
Psychologist Howard Gardner of Harvard University hassaid there are at least seven learning styles:Linguistic These people learn by using language __ ? listening, reading, speaking and writing. These people learn by applying mathematical ?Logical formulas and scientific principles.Visual These people learn by seeing what they are ? learning. Instead of finding music a distraction, these ?Musical people learn well when information is presented through music. Movement and physical activities help these ?Kinesthetic people to learn. These people have a good understanding of ?Intrapersonal themselves and can learn best if they can relate what they are learning directly to themselves. These people have a good understanding of ?Interpersonal others and learn well by working with others.
Different learning theories and styles clc.co.nz
What if a Student is having PersonalProblems?You can notice it when: When a student is expressing distress over such pressures as work, school, finances, family, or personal relationships. Marked change in the behavior in the classroom; e.g. increased in missed classes, frequent request for extensions, unusual class disruptions, and unprecedented anxious behavior. If a student directly comes to you asking for advice.
Approaches: Listen carefully and set the student at ease. Don’t provide ongoing counseling to the same student, instead let the student know you understand the problem and encourage consulting a specialist.
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Group Work
Effectivegroup work Student cooperation Handling the disruptive student
Effective group work!Sometimes groups do not function well together. Here’s a few tips for you: 1) Was the group selected randomly or strategically? HOW groups are selected might make a difference. 2) Is there enough in-class time for students to meet? 3) Is the activity designed well and clearly? 4) Are instructions given so time is not wasted in confusion? 5) Meet with difficult groups in your office, and find out how they have distributed the work load …discuss…clarify…facilitate.
Co-operation and group work! Think about the benefits of learning in groups!Increased range of ideas Opportunity to explore Increased student & perspectives similarities & differences Interaction
How do I handle the disruptive student? What can be done about the talkative ones? Always attempt to take the disturbance OUT of class. Avoid a conflict within a “public setting” , such as in class. (Don’t let the class become the ‘audience’ for this pupil.) Always LISTEN to the pupil when she comes to your office, repeat HER points back to her, express REGRET when explaining your inability to compromise.
Possible responses for dealing with thetalkative student: Acknowledge the comments made. Give a limited time for expressing feelings/viewpoints, THEN move on! Make eye contact with another student and MOVE TOWARDS HER…body language speaks volumes! Give the student attention during the breaks. She may be “crying out” for attention or she may have an actual difficulty within the class. Say: “That’s an interesting point. Now let’s see what others have to say about this.”
HarryWong’s “The 1st Day of School” Steven Covey “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Disruptive Students Disruptive Students Maha
Dealing with Difficult Students The Advisor The Doubting Thomas The Interrupter The Attacker The Dropout The Joker The Bragger Everyone Talks at Once The Know-it-All The Bully The Griper The Latecomers The Dictator The Head-shaker The Loudmouth The The Playboy/Playgirl The Silent Type Whisperers Overt Hostility/ The Teacher’s Pet The Preacher Resistance/ Angry
How do I get students over anxietyabout the course? Talk to student in private Discuss their fears with them Share frustrations and mistakes you made when you were a learner Try to present the topic in simple terms Try to share your goals and objectives
Side conversations Don’t embarrass talkers Ask their opinion on topic being discussed Ask them if they would like to share their ideas Casually move toward those talking Make eye contact with them Comment on the group Stand near talkers as you asks others a question As a last resort, stop and wait
Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angryPOSSIBLE RESPONSES: Hostility can be a mask for fear. Respond to fear, not hostility. Remain calm and polite. Keep your temper in check. Dont be threatened by a students anger Dont disagree, but build on or around what has been said. Move closer to the hostile person, maintain eye contact.
Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation. Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. Let choices and logical consequences shape the student. Share some of your experiences with anger with the students. Students need to know anger is a natural human emotion
Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Talk to him or her privately during a break. Dont preach! Often a short statement is all that is needed Show how actions today create the person of tomorrow Never let anger, in a disrespectful fashion, occur without commenting on it
Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry POSSIBLE RESPONSES: As a last resort, privately ask the individual to leave class for the good of the group. Never stop dealing with negative angry emotional outbursts. To stop sends a message to the student that you have given up When away from the storm, re-evaluate all angry interactions
What if a Student is having PersonalProblems?You can notice it when: When a student is expressing distress over such pressures as work, school, finances, family, or personal relationships. Marked change in the behavior in the classroom. The student directly comes to you asking for advice.
Approaches: Listen carefully and set the student at ease. Let the student know you understand the problem. Don’t provide ongoing counseling to the same student. Suggest going to the student advisor.
Managing the Teaching-Learning Environment Disruptive Students Learning Styles & Motivation Strategies Difficult Students & Preparation Group Work