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Physical To Imperialism

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  • 1. Africa Physical Geography and Early Civilizations
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. Five Regions of Africa
    • North
    • South
    • East
    • West
    • Central
  • 5. Landscape Features
    • Escarpment: steep cliff
    • cataract: large waterfall
  • 6. Four Climate Zones
    • Above all else, climate has affected population density in Africa.
    • Tropical
    2. Tropical Wet/Dry (savannah) 3. Mediterranean 4. Desert
  • 7.  
  • 8. Early Civilizations
    • Civilization: organized group of people with their own languages and way of life
    • Archaeologists: study remains left by early people
    • What have archaeologists discovered in Africa?
        • The earliest civilizations were tribes
          • Nomads : travel in search of food and shelter
  • 9. Early Civilizations
    • They also found remains of early kingdoms
    • Egypt : polytheistic, were ruled by pharaohs
    • - Achievements of Egypt:
            • The pyramids
            • Heiroglyphics
            • Egypt Video
  • 10. Early Civilizations
    • 2. Kush : polytheistic, same gods as Egyptians
    • - Achievements of Kush:
            • Use and spread of iron
    A stele from the Kingdom of Kush, inscribed with Merotic cursive.
  • 11. Early Civilizations
    • 3. Axum : monotheistic, Christianity
    • - Achievements of Axum:
            • Large trading kingdom
    A stone obelisk from Axum
  • 12. Early Civilizations Red= Kingdom of Egypt Blue= Kingdom of Kush Black= Kingdom of Axum
    • Why have these great kingdoms grown and thrived in the same general region?
  • 13. Early Civilizations
    • Many of the traditions of early tribes and societies have been passed down through the generations.
    • “ African Folklore and Oral Traditions”
  • 14. African Development Growth, Imperialism
  • 15. Early Patterns of Life
    • Began with traditional societies
      • Traditional societies usually have:
        • Hunting/gathering
        • Subsistence farmers : produce enough for own needs
        • Extended families living in clans
        • Variety of governments
          • Consensus : common agreement; the way many small communities made decisions
  • 16.
    • Traditional societies usually have:
        • Traditional religions
          • Many were monotheistic with a belief in lesser gods/spirits
          • Ancestors can help or harm your society
          • Diviners provide a special link to the spiritual world
    Early Patterns of Life
  • 17. Imperialism
    • Major kingdoms developed over time
    • Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a steady stream of outside traders and explorers
        • Brought new ideas and tools
          • Religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism
  • 18. European Imperialism
    • Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa
        • They brought gold and Africans back with them
        • It began the trade between Europe and Africa
    • With new colonies in the Americas, Europeans needed workers
  • 19.
    • European Motives
      • Raw materials/ natural resources
        • Diamonds of South Africa
        • Rubber from rainforests in Central Africa
      • Political rivalries
        • To be the best and have the biggest empire
        • Great Britain vs. Spain vs. Portugal vs. France
      • Spread Christianity and western civilization
        • Ethnocentrism: "The White Man's Burden" by Rudyard Kipling
    European Imperialism
  • 20.
    • The Atlantic Slave Trade
        • The Middle Passage : the second leg of the Atlantic slave trade in which horrible injustices were committed against Africans who were to be sold as slaves
    European Imperialism PBS: The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Effects of the slave trade
      • Increased tensions among tribes and societies
      • Small African communities disappeared
      • African diaspora : scattering of people and culture
          • Resulted in the spread of African culture to new regions of the world, especially Europe and the Americas
    European Imperialism
  • 23. The Scramble for Africa
    • European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the Berlin Conference (1884)
        • Split Africa into regions owned by European countries (page 99)
  • 24.  
  • 25. A New Conference?
    • Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference?
  • 26. Resistance to Imperialism
    • Africans continually fought of European imperialism
    • South African resistance
        • Zulus: trained warriors who fought off British soldiers
        • Boer Wars : Fights between Dutch settlers (Boers), British, and Zulus for diamonds and gold
          • Both Dutch and Zulus eventually absorbed into British empire
  • 27. Independence
    • Nationalism grew out of European imperialism
      • European boundaries put African tribal rivals under the same governments
    • Nationalists called for a movement
      • Pan-Africanism : movement to unite all Africans based on common heritage
  • 28.
    • WWII weakened European countries (1945)
    • African independence movements were able to gain strength
        • During the 1950s and 1960s many new independent African nations were created
    Independence
  • 29. Implications
    • African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies
        • Europeans gave no government training to Africans
        • Extracting and selling natural resources
  • 30.