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Physical To Imperialism
 

Physical To Imperialism

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    Physical To Imperialism Physical To Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • Africa Physical Geography and Early Civilizations
    •  
    •  
    • Five Regions of Africa
      • North
      • South
      • East
      • West
      • Central
    • Landscape Features
      • Escarpment: steep cliff
      • cataract: large waterfall
    • Four Climate Zones
      • Above all else, climate has affected population density in Africa.
      • Tropical
      2. Tropical Wet/Dry (savannah) 3. Mediterranean 4. Desert
    •  
    • Early Civilizations
      • Civilization: organized group of people with their own languages and way of life
      • Archaeologists: study remains left by early people
      • What have archaeologists discovered in Africa?
          • The earliest civilizations were tribes
            • Nomads : travel in search of food and shelter
    • Early Civilizations
      • They also found remains of early kingdoms
      • Egypt : polytheistic, were ruled by pharaohs
      • - Achievements of Egypt:
              • The pyramids
              • Heiroglyphics
              • Egypt Video
    • Early Civilizations
      • 2. Kush : polytheistic, same gods as Egyptians
      • - Achievements of Kush:
              • Use and spread of iron
      A stele from the Kingdom of Kush, inscribed with Merotic cursive.
    • Early Civilizations
      • 3. Axum : monotheistic, Christianity
      • - Achievements of Axum:
              • Large trading kingdom
      A stone obelisk from Axum
    • Early Civilizations Red= Kingdom of Egypt Blue= Kingdom of Kush Black= Kingdom of Axum
      • Why have these great kingdoms grown and thrived in the same general region?
    • Early Civilizations
      • Many of the traditions of early tribes and societies have been passed down through the generations.
      • “ African Folklore and Oral Traditions”
    • African Development Growth, Imperialism
    • Early Patterns of Life
      • Began with traditional societies
        • Traditional societies usually have:
          • Hunting/gathering
          • Subsistence farmers : produce enough for own needs
          • Extended families living in clans
          • Variety of governments
            • Consensus : common agreement; the way many small communities made decisions
      • Traditional societies usually have:
          • Traditional religions
            • Many were monotheistic with a belief in lesser gods/spirits
            • Ancestors can help or harm your society
            • Diviners provide a special link to the spiritual world
      Early Patterns of Life
    • Imperialism
      • Major kingdoms developed over time
      • Beginning in the early AD years, Africa had a steady stream of outside traders and explorers
          • Brought new ideas and tools
            • Religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism
    • European Imperialism
      • Circa 1450, Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal sent ships to explore the West Africa
          • They brought gold and Africans back with them
          • It began the trade between Europe and Africa
      • With new colonies in the Americas, Europeans needed workers
      • European Motives
        • Raw materials/ natural resources
          • Diamonds of South Africa
          • Rubber from rainforests in Central Africa
        • Political rivalries
          • To be the best and have the biggest empire
          • Great Britain vs. Spain vs. Portugal vs. France
        • Spread Christianity and western civilization
          • Ethnocentrism: "The White Man's Burden" by Rudyard Kipling
      European Imperialism
      • The Atlantic Slave Trade
          • The Middle Passage : the second leg of the Atlantic slave trade in which horrible injustices were committed against Africans who were to be sold as slaves
      European Imperialism PBS: The Atlantic Slave Trade
    •  
      • Effects of the slave trade
        • Increased tensions among tribes and societies
        • Small African communities disappeared
        • African diaspora : scattering of people and culture
            • Resulted in the spread of African culture to new regions of the world, especially Europe and the Americas
      European Imperialism
    • The Scramble for Africa
      • European colonial rivalries spurred the meeting of the Berlin Conference (1884)
          • Split Africa into regions owned by European countries (page 99)
    •  
    • A New Conference?
      • Does Africa need a new Berlin Conference?
    • Resistance to Imperialism
      • Africans continually fought of European imperialism
      • South African resistance
          • Zulus: trained warriors who fought off British soldiers
          • Boer Wars : Fights between Dutch settlers (Boers), British, and Zulus for diamonds and gold
            • Both Dutch and Zulus eventually absorbed into British empire
    • Independence
      • Nationalism grew out of European imperialism
        • European boundaries put African tribal rivals under the same governments
      • Nationalists called for a movement
        • Pan-Africanism : movement to unite all Africans based on common heritage
      • WWII weakened European countries (1945)
      • African independence movements were able to gain strength
          • During the 1950s and 1960s many new independent African nations were created
      Independence
    • Implications
      • African nations have struggled to maintain stable governments and stable economies
          • Europeans gave no government training to Africans
          • Extracting and selling natural resources
    •