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Big History


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Big History

  1. 1. Big History Theme 2 By Kristi Beria
  2. 2. Guns, Germs, & Steel The Geographic Luck of the Draw <ul><li>Certain geographical factors allowed certain civilizations to flourish while others died off. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the first farmers in the world were found in the Middle East where barley and wheat were cultivated. </li></ul><ul><li>More productive crops allowed for a more productive society. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops and animals that flourished in the Fertile Crescent were cultivated on similar lines of latitude along the east-west axis of Eurasia. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans took plants and animals to the New World. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Guns, Germs, & Steel Technology <ul><li>Having a reliable food supply means a larger population with more potential inventors. </li></ul><ul><li>Societies then passed on inventions and knowledge through migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Those societies that didn’t acquire or invent their own technologies died out. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter-gatherer societies, that spent all of their time looking for food, were being replaced by permanent societies that could spend more time finding new ways to make life easier. </li></ul><ul><li>European technology had an easier time spreading east to west (same day length and climate) than did the peoples of the Americas whose continent is laid out north to south (different day length and climate). </li></ul><ul><li>Guns and the production of harder and stronger steel led to the demise of the less technologically advanced societies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Guns, Germs, & Steel Germ Theory <ul><li>Disease played a huge role in the European conquest of the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of smallpox to the Americas can be traced to a slave brought aboard a Spanish ship to Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox swept through Central America until it reached the Incan Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with horses, guns, and swords, disease played a part in the decimation of whole civilizations by the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Many diseases came from domesticated animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of Europeans were also killed, but many generations of exposure to these diseases provided some immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Incan Empire was brought down, the Europeans colonized the rest of Peru, Africa, Australia, and much of Asia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. New World Slavery The Beginnings of Inequality <ul><li>Arabs and Muslims were the first to create a slave trade from sub-Saharan Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 14 million slaves were sent to Muslim regions. </li></ul><ul><li>The first stirrings of racism resulted from slaves being seen doing the dirtiest and lowest work and therefore thought to be less intelligent than the rest of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Moorish corsairs enslaved people from Italy to Iceland. </li></ul><ul><li>Once people had a taste of sugar, slaves were used to work sugar cane fields all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Sao Tome imported more African slaves than Europe, the Americas, or other Atlantic island combined. </li></ul>
  6. 6. New World Slavery The Beginnings of Inequality <ul><li>Amerindian slaves were sold by the Conquistadors to Panama, Peru, and the Caribbean and were used by the Portuguese to produce sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of Columbus’ voyage to the New World, the population of mainland North and South America was reduced by 90% due to disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans turned to African slave labor to colonize the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>By the year 1820, at least 10 million slaves had been shipped to the New World as opposed to only 2 million Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>The export of rice, tobacco, indigo, cotton, and sugar laid the groundwork for everything that America would become. </li></ul><ul><li>America was built upon the backs of slaves that worked the land, yet most do not acknowledge this fact. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Peoples and Empires Empires <ul><li>Throughout history, empires have both helped create new civilizations and destroy others. </li></ul><ul><li>Most empires were created out of both force and the desire to spread one’s ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>The search for new resources, better climates, and for man’s desire to posses led to the expansion of empires. </li></ul><ul><li>The expansion of empires had enveloped different races, languages, and cultures and has allowed the diversity of culture that wouldn’t have been possible otherwise. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Peoples and Empires In the name of religion…. <ul><li>Many conquering societies did so in the name of religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Roman emperors took on the role of defender of the church and took it upon themselves to spread the word of Christ to the ignorant non-Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests and clergymen often accompanied Spanish armies. </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers and missionaries led the religious crusade into India, Asia, Africa, and the Americas in order to bring Christ to the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were enslaved in the name of bringing their souls to the Lord. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Peoples and Empires “Are these not men?” <ul><li>Every empire up to the beginning of the 19 th century were slave owning societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern slavery decimated entire cultures in Africa and made new ones on the far side of the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1511, Bartolome de Las Casas became a crusader to stop the slavery of native Indians on the island of Hispaniola. </li></ul><ul><li>The first European state to outlaw slavery was Denmark in 1792. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1824, slavery became a capital offense. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery came to an end in European territories during the early 19 th century. </li></ul>