F:\Ap World History10\1450 1750\Rise Of West\Iberian And Northern Europeans
Hello, my name is Christopher Columbus and I am here to tell you about a major turning point in history! The Age of Exploration was a time when brave men, like myself, left the familiar shores of Europe in search of new lands, trade routes, and riches! Age of Exploration
Reasons for Exploration Look at the following pictures and see if you can determine the major reasons for Exploration in the 15 th thru 17 th centuries! GOLD GLORY GOD WATER ROUTE TO THE EAST TECHNOLOGY HUMANISM
Reasons for Exploration 1. “Gold” was a motivator! Many had a desire to find new sources of wealth. 2. “Glory” encouraged men to take risks! Many wanted fame and fortune for themselves and their nation. 3. “God” was used to justify their success. Due to Reformation, some wanted to spread Christianity. “ Come on! Did you think we did it to find a new vacation spot?” GOLD GLORY GOD
Reasons for Exploration 4. “Water Route to the East” was needed due to Muslim and Italian control of trade routes. 5. “Humanism” stressed the power of the individual to question and explore the world around them. 6. “Technology” such as the compass, sextant, astrolabe, and the caravel made sea travel easier. “ All this technology and the Queen only gives me three scrawny little ships!” WATER ROUTE TO THE EAST TECHNOLOGY HUMANISM
Motivation Gold – Wealth and prestige for the crown Glory – Glory for their nation, Individual Glory and fame God – Great Missionary Spirit to justify actions and gain new followers Need for new forms of revenue Take over trade from Muslims and Italians who dominated Mediterranean Iberian Gold – Wealth for individual and trading company Calvinists – wealth was a sign of God’s good grace. Glory – Individual fame and fortune God – Search for religious freedom (Puritans were persecuted) Competition developed with Iberian nations Northern European
1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How did it all start? How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
<ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India </li></ul><ul><li>Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, </li></ul><ul><li>like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the 1600s. </li></ul>Location In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led the way Iberian
The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages. “ I just wanted to get to the Indies, but no… these two big continents had to be in my way!” <ul><li>Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent </li></ul><ul><li>conquistadors to Central and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, </li></ul><ul><li>Spain settled Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains in Peru . </li></ul>Location Iberian
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniards capture the Inca King
<ul><li>Dutch and British </li></ul><ul><li>Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.” </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands </li></ul><ul><li>British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation allowed to trade with Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>British later replace Dutch ( New York, South Africa, India, Malacca ) </li></ul>Location 1707 map of Japan that depicts William Adams’ visit with Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600 Northern European
Henry Hudson failed to find a north-west or north-east passage in all four of his voyages.
Oversight Institution The Crown – Monarch and Church received 20% of profits! Mercantilism. Relied of King and Pope to make decisions. Resulted in slow, ineffective process of rule Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494: Pope made decision to split New World possessions into spheres of interest between Spain and Portugal. Iberian Trading companies received charters from King East and West India Companies develop – Privately funded ventures with goal of making a profit. Mercantilism existed, but development of capitalism began. Decisions can be made much faster by the settlers: Mayflower Compact Northern European
The Columbian Exchange “ The age of Exploration was a major turning point in history all because of me!” Columbian Exchange - the exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas, and technology between Europe and the New World. Which product do you think had the greatest impact? Wheat Sugar Bananas Rice Grapes Horses Pigs Cattle Sheep Chickens Measles Typhus Corn Potato Beans Peanuts Squash Pumpkin Tomatoes Avocados Chili Pepper Pineapple Cocoa Tobacco Quinine (a medicine for malaria) From Old World to New World From New World to Old World
Impact of Exploration <ul><li>Positive Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>New trade : led to weakening of the feudal system, rise </li></ul><ul><li>in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought </li></ul><ul><li>to New World </li></ul><ul><li>Global Trade : Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in </li></ul><ul><li>cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity </li></ul>The World in 1600 The World in 1400
<ul><li>Mercantilism : economic policy that created a favorable </li></ul><ul><li>balance of trade for the parent country. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an </li></ul><ul><li>exclusive market for the parent country. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects : </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Destruction : Millions of natives died due to </li></ul><ul><li>disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization. </li></ul>Parent Country Colony Raw Materials Profits $$ Products
The Triangle Trade Atlantic Slave Trade : Africans faced a diaspora, or forced movement of its people, as slavery became the dominant labor force in the Americas.
How do these two images reflect Northern European Exploration? Merchants and Bankers who want to make a profit for themselves and trading company. Pilgrims and the Mayflower Compact: Search for religious freedom and settlers making their own decision
Columbus showing off findings from New World to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Columbus arrives in America and plants flag for Spain. Glory for Spain and for himself. How do these two images reflect Iberian Exploration?
What do you think is the reason for the differences between Iberian and Northern European exploration? Here’s a hint: Pope Pius V Religious differences: Iberians were Roman Catholic and Northerners were Protestant Here’s a hint: Queen Isabella Political differences: Iberians had Absolute Monarchs with Divine Right and Northerners had Limited Parliamentary governments
Important People to Know Can you name the Explorer who went on each voyage? Ferdinand Magellan Circumnavigated the World Water Route to India Vasco da Gama
Zheng He Treasure Fleet Sailed in 1405 Discovery of New World Christopher Columbus