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Middle Ages


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overview of Middle Ages

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Middle Ages

  1. 1. The Middle Ages
  2. 2. Critical Intro: Who was the first major group to unify after the fall of Rome? What were the advantages of that group converting to Christianity?
  3. 3. Critical Intro: Why were the Middle Ages called the “Dark Ages”? Be specific and clear.
  4. 4. Critical Intro: Which of the invaders, Vikings, Magyars, or Angles and Saxons, had the farthest reach and expansion? Explain/Defend
  5. 5. Self-Sufficient Feudal Manor of the Middle Ages
  6. 6. Feudalism in the Middle Ages Social structure Feudalism = Social, economic, & military system of the Middle Ages. •Feudalism is based on the exchange of land for loyalty/protection. How did invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, & Vikings influence the development of Europe? 1. Manors with castles provided protection from invaders; reinforced feudal system. 2. Trade & towns declined; also reinforced feudal system. King Peasants/Serfs Knights Church Officials Powerful nobles
  7. 7. Feudal Society During the Middle Ages Fief SerfsFeudal Obligations Vassal Piece of land granted to a vassal in exchange for loyalty Person receiving a fief from a higher lord/noble Duties required of a vassal in his loyalty to his lord Peasants restricted to a specific manor
  8. 8. Lords and Vassals • Reading and questions
  9. 9. Big Question: How did invasions by the: - Angles & Saxons (continental Europe to England) - Magyars (Central Asia to Eastern Europe), & - Vikings (Scandinavia to Europe & Russia) influence the development of Europe? Task: 1.Create a key for the 3 groups of invaders 2.Shade points of origin 3.Draw arrows showing invasion routes
  10. 10. Areas of Settlement of Invaders 1. Manors with castles provided protection from invaders; reinforced feudal system. 2. Trade & towns declined; also reinforced feudal system. Influence of the Angles, Saxons, Magyars & Vikings? - Angles & Saxons migrated from continental Europe to England - Magyars migrated from Central Asia to Hungary - Vikings migrated from Scandinavia to Russia, Europe & westward.
  11. 11. The Vikings
  12. 12. Viking Longship The Key to Viking Expansion and Success
  13. 13. Viking Expansion
  14. 14. How and why did the Roman Catholic Church grow in importance during the Middle Ages? Roman secular authority declined, while church authority grew. Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman achievements. Missionaries carried Christianity & Latin alphabet to German tribes In 800 A.D. Pope anointed Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor. Priests served religious & social needs of the people. Roman Catholic Church Becomes Unifying Force in Western Europe
  15. 15. Importance of Church Scholars During the Middle Ages We were among the very few who could read and write We did our work in monasteries We translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin. We made new medical & scientific knowledge available in Europe We laid the foundation for the rise of Universities in Europe
  16. 16. Illuminated manuscript of the Middle Ages
  17. 17. Illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages
  18. 18. Charlemagne “Charles the Great” The Greatest Ruler of the Middle Ages Charlemagne’s Empire
  19. 19. The Age Charlemagne “Charles the Great” The Greatest Ruler of the Middle Ages Franks united under Clovis and adopted Christianity – A.D. 511 Charlemagne inherited a strong Frankish kingdom Revives learning throughout his empire! And spreads Christianity. He created a massive European Empire Charlemagne’s Empire divides after his death He is crowned Holy Roman Emperor = to Byzantine Emperors Churches, roads, schools built to unite the empire Power of church established in political life
  20. 20. Charlemagne’s Empire
  21. 21. The division of Charlemagne’s Empire – Treaty of Verdun
  22. 22. Warm Up: In your own words; define the Crusades.
  23. 23. Warm Up: Write one sentence connecting the Crusades to the Renaissance.
  24. 24. The Crusades
  25. 25. Pope Urban calls for 1st Crusade - 1096
  26. 26. Leader of Seljuk Turks Retakes Jerusalem Crusader States Established after 1st Crusade Video
  27. 27. The Crusades: Christians vs. Muslims: A fight for the Holy Land – 1096 - 1270 The Crusades – a series of military expeditions fighting for control of the Middle East “Holy Land” - Christian armies of Europe vs. Muslim armies Key Events of the Crusades - 1093 – Byzantine emperor sends an appeal to the west to help against Muslim Turks. - Pope Urban’s Speech – call for a “Holy War” - Capture of Jerusalem – 1st Crusade - Founding of Crusader States - Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin – leader of Seljuk Turks - Crusaders sack Constantinople – 4th Crusade Effects of the Crusades - weakened the Pope & nobles; strengthened kings Why? - left legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, & Muslims Why? - weakened the Byzantine Empire How? Economic Effects of the Crusades - Increased demand for Middle Eastern products - Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets. - Encouraged use of credit and banking (adopted from Muslims) - Helped begin the Renaissance in Italy! Why was the 1st Crusade considered the most successful? Use the “Economic” info. to write 1 sentence explaining the connection between the Crusades and the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy
  28. 28. Sacking of Constantinople: 4th CrusadeVideo
  29. 29. Critical Intro: How did the Black Death help bring the feudal system to an end?
  30. 30. The Black Death The Bubonic Plague sweeps through Europe Impact of the Black Death Decline in church influence Decline in population Towns freed from feudal obligations Disruption of trade Scarcity of labor
  31. 31. The Black Death The Bubonic Plague sweeps through Europe Use pages 357-359 to answer the following questions 1. What deadly disease spread through Europe starting in 1347? ______________________________________ 2. What was the eventual death toll? ___________________________ 3. What was the disease known as?____________________________ 4. From which region did this disease originate?__________________ 5. Briefly describe the transmission of the disease. _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 6. What were some economic effects of the plague? _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How did the image of the church change because of the plague? _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ___ Impact of the Black Death
  32. 32. Critical Intro: Which group were the founders of the region of Normandy, in northern France.
  33. 33. Critical Intro: The Hundred Years War helped to solidify the formation of which two countries?
  34. 34. The Formation of European Nation-States in the late Medieval period Pgs. 352-354 England 1. Who invades England in 1066? William the Conqueror 2. Where was he from? Normandy in northern France • What battle was fought for control of England? Battle of Hastings • Who won? William and the Normans • How did this event change the governing of England? William’s control over England laid the foundation for centralized government. King Henry II – 1154-1189 • What new legal idea did King Henry introduce? jury trials • The collection of court rulings became known as what? Common Law • What was the long-term impact of these rulings? This common law was the basis for law in many countries including the U.S. The Magna Carta • What was the most celebrated document in English history? The Magna Carta • Which English king was forced to sign this document in 1215? King John • How did this document impact the king’s power? It limited the king’s powers while guaranteeing basic political rights for individuals. France • Who began the Capetian dynasty in France in 987? Hugh Capet • The Capetians controlled which key city in Northern France? Paris • Eventually the Capetians would grow enough royal power to do what? unite France
  35. 35. Norman Conquest of England William the Conqueror invades England Battle of Hastings
  36. 36. The Magna Carta – Signed by King John of England – 1215 •Limited the king’s power •Expanded rights to the individual
  37. 37. The Hundred Years War – pgs. 359-361 1. The Hundred Years War lasted from 1337 to 1453 and involved the two growing nations of England and France. 2. Which new weapon had a significant impact on the battles in this war? Longbow • Who eventually wins this war? France • What new feeling did the war give birth to in both countries? Nationalism; the idea of country with strong central leadership. Joan of Arc unifies the French – pgs. 360-361 1. Joan of Arc was a hero for which side in the Hundred Years War? France 2. She claimed divine voices spoke to her. What did these voices instruct her to do? Drive the English out of France & crown France’s true king. 3. At which famous battle/siege did Joan of Arc lead the French to victory? Orleans 4. Joan helps unite the French against the English and turn the tide of the war, but what is her eventual fate? Captured by the English, charged with heresy & burned at the stake
  38. 38. Hundred Years War – England vs. France
  39. 39. The English Longbow
  40. 40. Joan of Arc Unifier of France during Hundred Years War
  41. 41. Joan of Arc Leads French to victory at Orleans
  42. 42. 54 Joan of Arc at Orleans
  43. 43. 55 Joan of Arc Found guilty of witchcraft and heresy, is burned at the stake
  44. 44. Spain unified under Ferdinand and Isabella “The Catholic Monarchs” 1469 - Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile unified Spain through political marriage. - They set out to make Roman Catholicism the dominant religion of Spain. - Their Spanish Inquisition expelled & killed Jews and Muslim Moors from Spain.
  45. 45. Russia and Ivan the Great – 1462-1505 • What would the Russian state become under Ivan III? An empire • Ivan III was the first to begin calling himself what? Czar • Since the 1200s, the Russian states had been controlled by which group of East Asian invaders? Mongols • What does Ivan do in 1480 to give Russia its independence? He refuses to pay the tribute to the Mongols. Bloodless standoff ends in Mongol withdraw. • After this event in 1480, what could the Russian Czars openly pursue? An empire Ivan III – “The Great”