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Chapter One
<ul><li>Natives of Asian descent traveled here during the Ice Age over the land bridge between Asia and North America </li...
 
<ul><li>Built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic and climate changes killed off larg...
<ul><li>Adena-Hopewell </li></ul><ul><li>Largest civilization in the Eastern part of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>(...
GRAVE CREEK MOUND (WV)
<ul><li>Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Natives of the Eastern United States woodlands (Great Lakes area) </li></ul><ul><li>Had...
 
<ul><li>South American Indian societies were grander in scale than their North American counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>S.A...
AZTEC CALENDAR
<ul><li>An Animistic Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Blending of the natural and supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits inhabit...
<ul><li>Indian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Men were primarily responsible for hunting, fishing, and protection </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Generally thought Indians lacked genuine religion;  seen as savages </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Indians were not “us...
<ul><li>European ideals of freedom were based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of p...
<ul><li>The Portuguese began exploration before 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator established an explorati...
<ul><li>“ New Monarchs” Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal, Spain, England, and France fell into this movement that stres...
 
<ul><li>Slavery in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery existed as a form of labor in Africa before Europeans became intereste...
<ul><li>Essentially, Spain got jealous of Portugal’s economic boom and had to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Spain had rec...
<ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Euro...
 
<ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed along the coast of South America around 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>He receiv...
Amerigo Vespucci Vasco da Gama
 
<ul><li>Spanish used a system called the “Encomienda system” for receiving land grants and commission cuts on all the Indi...
<ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>The economic theory Spain used in Spanish America </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the ...
<ul><li>Spain and Portugal were both Catholic countries involved in exploration </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church play...
 
<ul><li>France got interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>The French did not h...
<ul><li>Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 </li></ul><ul><li>Helped establish an empire from the St. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>England became interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Religiously, Eng...
COMPARISONS Traditional Henry VIII Post-Modern Henry VIII
<ul><li>The English “Sea Dogs” (pirates) and the navy easily defeated the illustrious Spanish Armada on a very foggy day <...
<ul><li>The 5 G’s </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, God, Glory, Greed, Gold (in that order) </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially sums up wh...
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HIST_1301_Chapter_1_Notes

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HIST_1301_Chapter_1_Notes

  1. 1. Chapter One
  2. 2. <ul><li>Natives of Asian descent traveled here during the Ice Age over the land bridge between Asia and North America </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 15,000 to 40,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Some historians believed they traveled via boat through the Bering Sea (near the Arctic Ocean) </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 8 to 10 million came to North America via the Bering Strait </li></ul>THE BERING STRAIT
  3. 4. <ul><li>Built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic and climate changes killed off large game (mammoths) and forced Indians to grow crops and hunt smaller game </li></ul><ul><li>North American Indians lacked literacy, wheeled vehicles, metal tools, and scientific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Significant agricultural centers at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico and Cahokia, Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>They died off by the time the Europeans arrived in N.A. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anasazi Indians were the largest tribe in the Northwest </li></ul><ul><li>Other significant tribes were the Hoh, Maka, and Quiluete </li></ul>NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  4. 5. <ul><li>Adena-Hopewell </li></ul><ul><li>Largest civilization in the Eastern part of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>(along the Mississippi River Valley) </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the Mound Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Series of semi-circular mound built around 3500 near present-day </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Point </li></ul><ul><li>This was a center of trade along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers </li></ul>NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  5. 6. GRAVE CREEK MOUND (WV)
  6. 7. <ul><li>Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Natives of the Eastern United States woodlands (Great Lakes area) </li></ul><ul><li>Had a powerful and specific language </li></ul><ul><li>Diets of corn, squash, beans (also fished and hunted) </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently warred with other tribes and formed loose alliances with other tribes </li></ul><ul><li>This was an important component of the “wilderness promotes democracy” theory by Frederick Jackson Turner in the late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>“ The history of America went from savagery to industry” </li></ul><ul><li>This confederacy was a prime example of the beginning of this phenomenon </li></ul>THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY
  7. 9. <ul><li>South American Indian societies were grander in scale than their North American counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>S.A. Indians were literate, had scientific knowledge, and knew how to navigate long-distance </li></ul><ul><li>The Mayan civilization was the largest (near present-day Mexico City) </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztec civilization was prominent in Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Had an advanced calendar system and was notable for their penchant for human sacrifice and cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521 after one failed attempt and a small pox epidemic </li></ul>SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS
  8. 10. AZTEC CALENDAR
  9. 11. <ul><li>An Animistic Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Blending of the natural and supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits inhabited various inanimate objects, animals, ceremonies related to farming, the four seasons, and hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Land was communal and tied closely with religious worship </li></ul>INDIAN RELIGION AND CULTURE
  10. 12. <ul><li>Indian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Men were primarily responsible for hunting, fishing, and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Men typically lived with the wife’s family after marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Strong matrilineal connections </li></ul><ul><li>Women had the right to divorce men </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois women served in politics as clan leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the Eastern U.S. tended to crops and children primarily </li></ul><ul><li>They also were gatherers, cooked meals, and sometimes built homes </li></ul>INDIAN RELIGION AND CULTURE
  11. 13. <ul><li>Generally thought Indians lacked genuine religion; seen as savages </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Indians were not “using” all of their land and did not have property claims </li></ul><ul><li>In the European view: No property deed, no right to land </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed Indian men as savages who were mentally and spiritually weak </li></ul><ul><li>Often seen as abusers who mistreated Indian women </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans believed the idea of freedom was alien to Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically, the Europeans believed the Indians were “too free” because they did not have laws that conformed with European society </li></ul>EUROPEAN VIEWS OF INDIANS
  12. 14. <ul><li>European ideals of freedom were based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of private property </li></ul><ul><li>People governed under a set of laws </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of religion and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience to Christ meant freedom from sin (religious views) </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience to laws mean freedom in the European political/social mentality </li></ul><ul><li>Women had little to no rights and had to be obedient to their husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom was a function of social class </li></ul><ul><li>For the masses: Limited freedom and “obedience” was the cost of a well-ordered society </li></ul><ul><li>For the rich: “Masterless men” enjoyed liberties that the majority did not </li></ul>EUROPEAN IDEALS OF FREEDOM
  13. 15. <ul><li>The Portuguese began exploration before 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator established an exploration school in 1420 </li></ul><ul><li>Had new technology such as the caravel, compass, cannons, and </li></ul><ul><li>quadrant. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal: make travel along the African coast as efficient as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the African coastline to find a better route to the Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Make cash from trading in the Indies </li></ul>PORTUGUESE EXPANSION
  14. 16. <ul><li>“ New Monarchs” Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal, Spain, England, and France fell into this movement that stressed economic gain through exploration over constant warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally the notion of “God and Country” began tied with this movement </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese establish trading posts along the west coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>They begin colonizing the African Islands on the Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Establish sugar plantations and begin the Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul>PORTUGUESE EXPANSION
  15. 18. <ul><li>Slavery in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery existed as a form of labor in Africa before Europeans became interested </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare was common due to influence from the Islamic empires </li></ul><ul><li>(The rise and fall of Mali, Ghana, and Dahomey) </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy war lords would take POWs as slaves and sell them </li></ul><ul><li>European Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal was the first European nation to establish a trading empire in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>They traded textiles and guns for African slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 1000 slaves per year were traded along the Middle Passage initially </li></ul><ul><li>(Route from Europe to West Africa, to North America) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1800, 5 ½ million adults and 11 million children were transported as slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans saw slavery as a great economic boon </li></ul><ul><li>They did not notice the social impact that slavery had in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, they transplanted the ‘economic mentality’ of slavery to the rest of Europe </li></ul>ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
  16. 19. <ul><li>Essentially, Spain got jealous of Portugal’s economic boom and had to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Spain had recently gotten over the Spanish Reconquista (pushed the Moors out of Spain) and wanted desperately to become a big economic power </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Reconquista was the only successful crusade </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the Reconquista was to purge Spain of Islamic factions </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, they ordered all Muslims to convert to Catholicism or get out </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1400s, Spain was sending numerous explorers to find a way to the Indies </li></ul>SPANISH EXPANSION
  17. 20. <ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that it was possible to reach the Indies by sailing west from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Did not buy into the theory that the world was </li></ul><ul><li>flat </li></ul><ul><li>Persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his journeys </li></ul><ul><li>Landed in Hispaniola in 1942; began colonizing a year later </li></ul><ul><li>After four trips, he refused to believe he did not reach China </li></ul><ul><li>However, he found a new world full of gold and </li></ul><ul><li>silver </li></ul><ul><li>He died in disgrace and poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically, he made Spain very rich </li></ul>NOTABLE EXPLORERS
  18. 22. <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed along the coast of South America around 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>He received the credit for discovering the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially took Columbus’s claim </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama </li></ul><ul><li>Actually found a passage to the Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed around the southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Cape of Good Hope </li></ul><ul><li>His claim was largely ignored because Europe was too busy staking a claim in the New World </li></ul>NOTABLE EXPLORERS
  19. 23. Amerigo Vespucci Vasco da Gama
  20. 25. <ul><li>Spanish used a system called the “Encomienda system” for receiving land grants and commission cuts on all the Indian villages that were sacked </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the Spanish crown granted a person a partial of land and a </li></ul><ul><li>number of natives that they would “look after” and use as labor </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church was very influential in this system </li></ul><ul><li>Power flowed from the King to the Council of the Indies to Viceroys to local officials (overall, it was an effective chain of command) </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and silver mining was the primary economic source in Spanish America </li></ul>SPANISH COLONIZATION
  21. 26. <ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>The economic theory Spain used in Spanish America </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the prosperity of a nation is based upon its supply of capital (gold, silver, trade value) and the global volume of international trade is static </li></ul><ul><li>Positive balance of trade with other nations is expected at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage exports and discourage imports (using tariffs and subsidies) </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Fifth </li></ul><ul><li>A tax used by the King of Spain in Spanish America </li></ul><ul><li>The King received 1/5 profit on all taxable goods produced in Spanish America </li></ul><ul><li>This helped him pay for the frequent and prolonged wars Spain got involved with </li></ul>SPANISH COLONIZATION
  22. 27. <ul><li>Spain and Portugal were both Catholic countries involved in exploration </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church played a large role in the administration of </li></ul><ul><li>the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Appealing to a higher power made conquest look legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>A conflict arose over the two countries’ claims in South America </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church stepped in and set a line of demarcation </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal took everything east of the line </li></ul><ul><li>Spain took everything west of the line </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries agreed to Christianize the native ‘savages’ after the treaty was signed </li></ul><ul><li>Spain goes a step further and calls for all “inferiors” to convert to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans put an animistic twist on Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Along with the transfer of religion, small pox and other diseases were transferred to the natives </li></ul>TREATY OF TORDESILLAS (1494)
  23. 29. <ul><li>France got interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>The French did not honor treaties with the Catholic nations </li></ul><ul><li>France was an odd case religiously </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally Catholic, but a large portion of the population was </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther’s 95 theses (Halloween 1517) and Calvin’s theory of predestination fueled the conflict between Protestants and Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>The French wanted to find gold and a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean </li></ul>FRENCH COLONIZATION
  24. 30. <ul><li>Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 </li></ul><ul><li>Helped establish an empire from the St. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence River to the Great Lakes and </li></ul><ul><li>down the Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>The French adopted a humane policy toward the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>All they wanted was trade </li></ul><ul><li>However, they brought disease and depleted animals for the fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>The first French colonists were the Huguenots (a Protestant variation) </li></ul><ul><li>All of their settlements failed due to famine, native attacks, or Spanish invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, initial French colonization efforts were weak </li></ul>FRENCH COLONIZATION
  25. 31. <ul><li>England became interested in exploration because of Spain and Portugal’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Religiously, England was thoroughly Protestant because of Henry VIII’s marriage issues and his daughter, Elizabeth I’s push for Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth executed her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots </li></ul><ul><li>for numerous assassination attempts </li></ul><ul><li>This upset King Phillip II of Spain and he sent the Spanish navy to invade Britain in 1588 </li></ul>ENGLISH COLONIZATION
  26. 32. COMPARISONS Traditional Henry VIII Post-Modern Henry VIII
  27. 33. <ul><li>The English “Sea Dogs” (pirates) and the navy easily defeated the illustrious Spanish Armada on a very foggy day </li></ul><ul><li>The British knew the English Channel </li></ul><ul><li>much better than the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave the English a valid claim to the New World </li></ul><ul><li>English pirates like Sir Francis Drake discovered San Francisco </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Walter Raleigh founded the </li></ul><ul><li>Roanoke Colony in North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>which later mysteriously disappeared </li></ul><ul><li>In 1600, there were no English settlements in the New World </li></ul>ENGLISH COLONIZATION
  28. 34. <ul><li>The 5 G’s </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, God, Glory, Greed, Gold (in that order) </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially sums up what all European nations were after </li></ul><ul><li>Claims of abundant gold and silver drove warriors, sailors, and other ambitious men to seek glory while serving the Church </li></ul><ul><li>A true win-win situation for God and Country </li></ul><ul><li>National glory and religious mission went hand in hand </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans really did not buy into this </li></ul><ul><li>However, Europeans believed souls that could be saved could make a great labor force </li></ul>WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED?

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