Chapter 4 notes

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Chapter 4 notes

  1. 1. Heritage of Africa<br />Chapter 4<br />
  2. 2. Patterns of Life – Section 2<br />Family Ties<br />Extended Families – farming and herding communities. Eldest male heads family<br />Lineage and Clan – creates a bond of loyalty<br />--- Kinship ties encouraged a strong sense of community<br />--- Several lineages make up a clan<br />
  3. 3. Patterns of Government<br />Rulers led a large empire, sometimes this ruler was a distant figure.<br />Small villages: decisions are made through public discussion<br />--- goal is to reach a consensus<br />--- Elders make final decision<br />
  4. 4. Economic Organizations<br />Most Africans were farmers or herders<br />--- subsistence farmers <br />
  5. 5. Women<br />Planting, weeding, harvesting, educate the young, and prepared daughters for marriage.<br />Ashanti Tribe: women ruled!<br />Other: women had little power. Women were property of their man.<br />Bride Wealth: brides family got $$$ from groom. Cattle was the gift in herding societies<br />--- recognizes a woman’s importance<br />
  6. 6. Age Grade System<br />Ties of loyalty<br />Includes all boys and girls born the same year<br />Special ceremonies marking growth stages<br />Learn the values of society<br />1. Who was in charge of this system?<br />2. Why did they learn the songs and sacred knowledge?<br />3. What did they learn at the Koranic school?<br />
  7. 7. African Religion<br />Religion helps to unite the society<br />Traditional Beliefs<br />--- Most are monotheistic<br />--- Ancestors can help or harm you<br />Diviners and Healers<br />--- Interpreters between people and the divine world<br />Christianity: Ethiopia for 1500 years, 1800’s Europeans pushed into Africa<br />Islam: Jihad – holy war, Usuman dan Fodounited the Fulani herders, conquered the Hausa, created the Hausa-Fulani Empire (current day)<br />
  8. 8. Review Questions<br />Who would use a consensus decision?<br />What is polygamy?<br />What crops do subsistence farmers grow?<br />How were the women of the Ashanti tribe treated?<br />What is bride wealth?<br />Describe who participates in the Age-Grade System and what it is.<br />What Empire is Usuman dan Fodio part of?<br />
  9. 9. The Slave Trade – Section 3<br />Olaudah Equiano: 11 year old slave<br />--- Kidnapped in Nigeria<br />--- Took the “Middle Passage”<br />--- Wrote book describing slave treatment<br />
  10. 10. Slavery<br />First Slaves were treated as part of an African Community. Servants, not property.<br />--- They could become members of their society.<br />Colonies in the New World needed a large labor force. Slaves were cheaper than Indentured Servants.<br />
  11. 11. Exploring the Coast of Africa<br />First contact between Europeans and Africans was early 1400’s.<br />Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator<br />--- looking for gold/Sea route around Africa to India<br />
  12. 12. Items Traded for Slaves<br />European Slavers relied on local African rulers to get slaves<br />Traded Guns for slaves<br />--- Began trading with the “locals”<br />Brought Christian missionaries, to convert.<br />
  13. 13. Trade in Human Beings<br />1400 - Demand for slaves was limited until Columbus discovers America.<br />1500 – “Slavery” changes<br />1700 – Height of slave trade. 60,000 per year<br />Middle Passage: trip from Africa to New World<br />Slaves for guns --- Paid local Africans for their own race<br />Slave trade lasted 400 years – 2-3 million deaths<br />
  14. 14. End of the Slave Trade<br />Abolition<br />--- Quakers: strong supporters<br />--- Europeans in 1800s<br />Effects<br />--- Disrupted whole societies in Africa<br />--- Economic life suffered<br />--- Diaspora: the scattering of people<br />--- Sierra Leone and Liberia: 1787 British set up a colony in West Africa for freed slaves<br />
  15. 15. Review Questions<br />Who is Olaudah Equiano?<br />What is the Middle Passage?<br />What was the first European country to make direct contact with the Africans?<br />How did Europeans get their slaves?<br />What were some of the negative affects caused by slavery --- in Africa?<br />What happened in Sierra Leone and Liberia in 1787?<br />
  16. 16. Age of European Imperialism – Section 4<br />1800’s, Europeans begin to explore Africa<br />David Livingstone<br />European Motives: <br />Economic – raw materials (rubber, palm oil, cotton, ivory, and rare hardwoods)<br />Political – Nationalism “We’re #1”<br />Religious – Spread Christianity, improve health<br />
  17. 17. Scramble for Colonies<br />What helped the Europeans move into Africa?<br />1. Maxim Gun<br />2. Medication to prevent diseases<br />The Berlin Conference: Europeans made decisions about dividing up Africa…..<br />France, Britain competed for Egypt<br />Belgium gets the Congo<br />--- Exploited human and mineral resources<br />--- Resist? Get hands or ears cut off<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. African Resistance<br />Many Africans resist European Imperialism<br />--- millions of Africans died<br />Congo<br />--- population fell from 20 million to 8 million<br />Europeans had superior weapons and other technology, locals did not have<br />
  20. 20. Struggled for Southern Africa<br />Migrating people<br />--- Zulus disrupt traditional patterns of life<br />--- Shaka Zulu<br />Boers: Dutch/African citizens move to South Africa<br />--- Boers defeat the Zulus with help from the British.<br />
  21. 21. Diamonds and Gold<br />Diamonds discovered in 1867; Gold in 1884<br />By 1902 British defeat the Boers in the Boer War<br />South Africa settled in 1910<br />--- Only white men had the right to vote<br />--- Boers gain control of the government<br />
  22. 22. Review Questions<br />What was David Livingstone's connection with Africa?<br />What type of person was Leopold II?<br />Why did the Europeans take an interest in Africa in the 1800’s?<br />Why did African efforts to resist European imperialism fail?<br />What happened at the Berlin Conference?<br />What was a Political interest in gaining a foot in Africa?<br />
  23. 23. What methods did Europeans use to rule their colonies? (Define)<br />How did the Europeans economically exploit their colonies?<br />Why did a Money Economy change life in Africa?<br />Where were material improvements made in Colonial Africa?<br />
  24. 24. Effects of European Rule – Section 5<br />New Political System<br />Colonial Governments<br />--- Direct rule: colonial power controlled the govt. at every level<br />--- Indirect rule: leave local rulers in place, but colonial powers made decisions<br />Traditional African rulers no longer had power or influence<br />
  25. 25. Economic Systems<br />Europeans expected their colonies to be profitable.<br />--- Exploited the natural resources of their colony (Mining and Plantations)<br />--- Upset traditional patterns of African life<br />Money Economy<br />--- Men left homes for long periods to work in the mines<br />--- Land no longer part of the community<br />--- Africans now more dependent on the Colonial Rulers<br />
  26. 26. Material Improvements<br />New Communication methods<br />Built roads<br />Railroads<br />Missionaries set up hospitals<br />Schools<br />Better sanitation<br />By 1900, new African leaders were emerging. Take pride in your African past. Set seed for future independence movement.<br />
  27. 27. Educated Elite<br />A small group of people with high social status.<br />Who is an ELITE member of CD EAST?<br />Who to believe….Europeans and their traditions or African heritage…..<br />
  28. 28. Review Questions<br />1. What happens with Direct Rule?<br />2. What is Indirect Rule?<br />3. How did Europeans treat their colonies? Give an example.<br />4. Name two improvements brought into Africa.<br />5. did European rule affect African culture?<br />6. How can European Imperialism of Africans compare to treatment during colonial America?<br />
  29. 29. What methods did Europeans use to rule their colonies? (Define)<br />Direct Rule – Colonial power controlled the govt. at every level.<br />Indirect Rule – Leave traditional rulers in place<br />Howdid the Europeans economically exploit their colonies?<br />Sent raw materials to Europe.<br />Set up plantations to grow cash crops.<br />Wherewere material improvements made in Colonial Africa?<br />Transportation (Roads, Rails)<br />Communication (Telegraph)<br /><ul><li>Weakened family life</li></ul>Social (Hospitals, Sanitation, Schools)<br />Whydid a Money Economy change life in Africa?<br />No more Bartering!<br />Created differences in wealth<br />Land was not communal anymore<br />More dependent on the Imperialistic Nations<br />

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