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  • 1.  
  • 2. Meet our protagonist… We’ll call him “The Manager”
  • 3. Meet our protagonist… We’ll call him “The Manager” Hi!
  • 4. The Manager works for a Company
  • 5. The Manager works for a Company We make stuff!
  • 6. But there is a problem…
  • 7. The workers aren’t motivated…
  • 8. The workers aren’t motivated… Breaks over!
  • 9. The workers aren’t motivated… #%$#*!
  • 10. The Manager needs to figure out how to increase employee motivation
  • 11. The Manager needs to figure out how to increase employee motivation But how?
  • 12. He tried to get the workers excited!
  • 13. He tried to get the workers excited! Let’s go!
  • 14. He tried to get the workers excited! Ge t motivated!
  • 15. He put motivational quotes up around the office
  • 16. He tried to instill fear!
  • 17. He tried to instill fear! Get moving or your fired!
  • 18. He even tried to “entice” them Salary $$$
  • 19. He even tried to “entice” them Big Bucks! I got the Big Bucks! Salary $$$
  • 20. These “fixes” all worked for a while…
  • 21. But none of them seemed to work for long
  • 22. But none of them seemed to work for long Ho Hum…
  • 23. So what should Manager do now??
  • 24. To answer this question, We need to know/understand..
  • 25.
    • Motivation
    • Meaning
    • Features
    • Importance
    • Determinants
    • Theories(Content, Process, Reinforcement)
    • How to motivate employees
    • Non Financial Incentives
    • Morale and Productivity.
  • 26. Motivation Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal
  • 27. Motivation Characteristics Or Features of Motivation
    • Personal and Internal Feeling
    • Art of Stimulating Someone Or Oneself
    • Produces Goal – Directed Behaviour
    • Motivation can be either Positive or Negative
    • The Central Problem of Motivation is HOW
    • Motivation is System Oriented
    • Motivation is different from Satisfaction
  • 28. Motivation Importance of Motivation
    • Puts human resources into action
    • Improves level of efficiency of employees
    • Leads to achievement of organizational goals
    • Builds friendly relationship
    • Leads to stability of work force
  • 29. Motivation Motivation is important to an individual as:
    • Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals.
    • If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction.
    • Motivation will help in self-development of individual.
    • An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.
  • 30. Motivation Motivation is important to a business as:
    • The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is.
    • The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and successful is the business.
    • During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity.
    • Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place.
  • 31. Motivation
    • Needs
      • For security
      • For self-esteem
      • For achievement
      • For power
    • Attitudes
      • About self
      • About job
      • About supervisor
      • About organization
    • Goals
      • Task completion
      • Performance level
      • Career advancement
    INTERNAL (PUSH FORCES) Characteristics of THE INDIVIDUAL (examples) EXTERNAL (PULL FORCES) Characteristics of THE JOB Characteristics of THE WORK SITUATION (examples) (examples)
    • Feedback
      • Amount
      • Timing
    • Work load
    • Tasks
      • Variety
      • Scope
    • Discretion
      • How job is performed
    • Immediate Social Environment
      • Supervisor(s)
      • Workgroup members
      • Subordinates
    • Organizational actions
      • Rewards & compensation
      • Availability of training
      • Pressure for high levels of output
    Determinants
  • 32. Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs .
  • 33. Motivation Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.
  • 34. Motivation Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
  • 35. Motivation ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
  • 36. Motivation David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. nAch nPow nAff
  • 37. Motivation Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.
  • 38. Motivation
  • 39. Motivation Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.
  • 40. Motivation Reinforcement Theory Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. The assumption that behavior is a function of its consequences.
  • 41. Motivation Job Design Theory
    • Characteristics:
    • Skill variety
    • Task identity
    • Task significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
    Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
  • 42. Motivation Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
  • 43. Motivation Equity Theory Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.
  • 44. Motivation Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
  • 45. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Motivating Unique Groups of Workers
      • Motivating a diverse workforce through flexibility:
        • Men desire more autonomy than do women.
        • Women desire learning opportunities, flexible work schedules, and good interpersonal relations.
  • 46. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Flexible Work/Job schedules
      • Compressed work week
        • Longer daily hours, but fewer days
      • Flexible work hours (flextime)
        • Specific weekly hours with varying arrival, departure, lunch and break times around certain core hours during which all employees must be present.
      • Job Sharing
        • Two or more people split a full-time job.
      • Telecommuting
        • Employees work from home using computer links.
  • 47. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Motivating Professionals
      • Characteristics of professionals
        • Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise.
        • Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer.
        • Have the need to regularly update their knowledge.
        • Don’t define their workweek as 8:00 am to 5:00 pm.
      • Motivators for professionals
        • Job challenge
        • Organizational support of their work
  • 48. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Motivating Contingent Workers
      • Opportunity to become a permanent employee
      • Opportunity for training
      • Equity in compensation and benefits
    • Motivating Low-Skilled, Minimum-Wage Employees
      • Employee recognition programs
      • Provision of sincere praise
  • 49. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs
      • Open-book management
        • Involving employees in workplace decision by opening up the financial statements of the employer.
      • Employee recognition programs
        • Giving personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
      • Pay-for-performance
        • Variable compensation plans that reward employees on the basis of their performance:
          • Piece rates, wage incentives, profit-sharing, and lump-sum bonuses
  • 50. Motivation How to motivate employees?
    • Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs..Cont..
      • Stock option programs
        • Using financial instruments (in lieu of monetary compensation) that give employees the right to purchase shares of company stock at a set (option) price.
        • Options have value if the stock price rises above the option price; they become worthless if the stock price falls below the option price.
  • 51. Motivation Non-financial methods of motivation
    • Job enlargement
    • Job rotation
    • Job enrichment
    • Team working and empowerment
  • 52. Motivation Morale and Productivity.
    • High morale - High morale implies determination at work- an essential in achievement of management objectives. High morale results in:
    • A keen teamwork on part of the employees.
    • Organizational Commitment and a sense of belongingness in the employees mind.
    • Immediate conflict identification and resolution.
    • Healthy and safe work environment.
    • Effective communication in the organization.
    • Increase in productivity.
    • Greater motivation.
  • 53. Motivation Morale and Productivity.
    • Low morale - Low morale has following features:
    • Greater grievances and conflicts in organization.
    • High rate of employee absenteeism and turnover.
    • Dissatisfaction with the superiors and employers.
    • Poor working conditions.
    • Employees frustration.
    • Decrease in productivity.
    • Lack of motivation.
  • 54. Motivation So now The Manager knows the way to structure pay and rewards to leverage the drive to Acquire (not just as base pay) Bonus Check $$$
  • 55. Motivation So now The Manager knows the way to structure pay and rewards to leverage the drive to Acquire (not just as base pay) Utilize incentives to drive performance and create a culture of recognition and reward Bonus Check $$$
  • 56. Motivation The Manager also knows that the Acquire drive is relative Bonus Check $$$
  • 57. Motivation The Manager also knows that the Acquire drive is relative Employees will always compare themselves to others… the drive is never fully satisfied Bonus Check $$$
  • 58. Motivation And you need to know what your employees think Bonus Check $$$
  • 59. Motivation And you need to know what your employees think Find out who your employees compare themselves too ( this is not always obvious) and make sure that your pay and perks are comparable Bonus Check $$$
  • 60. Motivation And The Manager knows that the drive to Acquire is about more than just money Wendy is NUMBER !
  • 61. Motivation And The Manager knows that the drive to Acquire is about more than just money The drive to Acquire is also about prestige and status Wendy is NUMBER !
  • 62. Motivation And The Manager knows that the drive to Acquire is about more than just money Make sure you give credit and promote your employees achievements! Wendy is NUMBER !
  • 63. Motivation But employees also have a drive to Bond
  • 64. Motivation But employees also have a drive to Bond
  • 65. Motivation But employees also have a drive to Bond [ form positive social relationships with co-workers ]
  • 66. Motivation Bonding is an innate drive that helps employees feel part of a group
  • 67. Motivation They will go out of their way to help people in their group
  • 68. Motivation They will go out of their way to help people in their group Do you need any help?
  • 69. Motivation These bonds will help to instill loyalty and engender positive emotions about the company
  • 70. Motivation These bonds will help to instill loyalty and engender positive emotions about the company What a great place to work!
  • 71. Motivation So The Manager now knows that he has to foster bonding and create opportunities for social interaction Beers on me!
  • 72. Motivation So The Manager now knows that he has to foster bonding and create opportunities for social interaction Beers on me!
  • 73. Motivation So The Manager now knows that he has to foster bonding and create opportunities for social interaction Beers on me!
  • 74. Motivation Which leads to the employees identifying themselves as a team… Beers on me!
  • 75. Motivation Which leads to the employees identifying themselves as a team… Beers on me!
  • 76. Motivation SUPER HEROES! Now after all these motivation. His employee/team became
  • 77. Motivation Companies create teams of super heroes!
  • 78. Motivation Who come to work motivated and engaged!
  • 79. Motivation The Company prospered…
  • 80. Motivation The Company prospered…
  • 81. Motivation The Company prospered…
  • 82. Motivation And The Manager got promoted!
  • 83. Motivation And The Manager got promoted!
  • 84. Motivation And The Manager got promoted!
  • 85. Motivation And The Manager got promoted! Yeah!
  • 86. Motivation Bye!!