Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Model of the Motivation Process </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational Research </li></ul>
  3. 3. Needs and Motivation <ul><li>Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process
  5. 5. Types of Needs <ul><li>Innate Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Is a body spray an innate or acquired need?
  7. 7. Goals <ul><li>The sought-after results of motivated behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 4-2a Goals Structure for Weight Control
  9. 9. Figure 4-2b Goals Structure for Weight Control
  10. 10. Figure 4-2c Goals Structure for Weight Control
  11. 11. Weight Control Giants weblink weblink
  12. 12. The Selection of Goals <ul><li>The goals selected by an individual depend on their: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailing cultural norms and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion Question <ul><li>What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year? </li></ul><ul><li>What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year? </li></ul><ul><li>In what situations are these two related? </li></ul><ul><li>How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Motivations and Goals <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A driving force toward some object or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A positive goal toward which behavior is directed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A driving force away from some object or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A negative goal from which behavior is directed away </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Rational versus Emotional Motives <ul><li>Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria </li></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion Question <ul><li>What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives? </li></ul><ul><li>What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Dynamic Nature of Motivation <ul><li>Needs are never fully satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves </li></ul>
  18. 18. Substitute Goals <ul><li>Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need </li></ul><ul><li>The substitute goal will dispel tension </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time </li></ul>
  19. 19. Frustration <ul><li>Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Defense Mechanism <ul><li>Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem </li></ul>
  21. 21. What type of defense mechanism is this spokesperson using in this ad?
  22. 22. Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul>
  23. 23. Arousal of Motives <ul><li>Physiological arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental arousal </li></ul>
  24. 24. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives <ul><li>Behaviorist School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is response to stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer does not act, but reacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is directed at goal achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10 weblink
  26. 26. Discussion Question <ul><li>What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. </li></ul><ul><li>For each type of product – consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance
  28. 28. Table 4.3 (con’t) Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition
  29. 29. This ad reflects a need for accomplishment with a toothpaste.
  30. 30. A Trio of Needs <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual’s desire to control environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need for personal accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Measurement of Motives <ul><li>Researchers rely on a combination of techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of a measurement scale can be complex </li></ul>
  32. 32. Motivational Research <ul><li>Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions </li></ul>
  33. 33. Qualitative Motivational Research <ul><li>Metaphor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Word association and sentence completion </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic apperception test </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing pictures and photo-sorts </li></ul>
  34. 34. Many Companies Specialize in Motivational Research weblink we blink

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