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Bahadir Beadin
Motivation of Employees in the
Work Place
Introduction
 The purpose of this research presentation is to
understand the importance of motivation and
identify factors that are essential for effective
motivation. This prestnati includes
 (1) the definition of motivation;
 (2) theories of motivation;
 (3) what makes people work and any they work;
 (4) reasons to motivate employees and
managers;
 (5) techniques to motivate managers;
 (6) techniques to motivate employees;
 (7) conclusion
Definition
 Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and
maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes
us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce
hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The
forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological,
social, emotional or cognitive in nature.
 In Business we described motivation as the level of
desire the employees feels to perform
 There are 5 theories that atempt to describe
motivation. Those are instinct, incentive,arousal, drive
and humanistic theory.
Instinct Theory of Motivation
 The Instinct Theory of Motivation views biological
or genetic programming as the cause of
motivation.
 All humans have same motivation
 Root of all motivations is dependable upon our
motivation to survive
 Our behavior is a result of our motivation to
survive
 Fails to describe more complex situations
Incentive Motivation Theory
 According to this view, people are pulled toward
behaviors that offer positive incentives and
pushed away from behaviors associated with
negative incentives.
 Try to get incentives
 Avoid punishments
Arousal Theory
 The arousal theory of motivation suggests that
people are driven to perform actions in order to
maintain an optimum level of physiological
arousal
 Motivation depends on the level of arousal
 Balancing arousal level is the key
 Too much or too litle arousal leads to bad
performace
Drive Theory of Motivation
 Humans have internal biological needs which
motivate us to perform a certain way.
 Internal drives and arousal must be reduced
 Aim is to achieve level of calmness
 Examples can be hunder and thirst
Humanistic Theory of Motivation
WHY MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES
 Companies look for a person who can fill the gap
between the willingness and ability in order to get
the best out of his work performance.
 Motivation Results in:
 Higher productivity
 Increased revenue
 Cost saving
 Satisfied customers employees as well as the
owners of the business
UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE
WORK
 What do you think why people work?
 Because they have to?
 For the money?
 How about these people:
 Volunteers
 Dollar-a-year executives
UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE
WORK
 The benefits people get from paid and unpaid
work have a strong correlation to their values.
 Fulfilling their material needs
 Satisfaction
 Belongingness
 Contribute to society
 Personal achievement
 Challenges
UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE
WORK
 Douglas McGregor, a founding faculty of Sloan
School of Management provides us with two
theories that explain human behavior.
 Theory X
 Thery Y
Theory X
 Theory X (authoritarian management style)
assumes that
 Humans dislilke work and try to avoid it
 Therefore most people must be forced with the
threat of punishment to work towards
organisational objectives.
 The average person prefers to be directed; to
avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and
wants security above all else.
Theory Y (participative style)
 Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
 People will apply self-control and self-direction in the
pursuit of organizational objectives, without external
control or the threat of punishment.
 Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards
associated with their achievement.
 People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
 The capacity to use a high degree of imagination,
ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational
problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the
population.
 In industry the intellectual potential of the average
person is only partly utilized.
MANAGERS AND MOTIVATION
 Good manager is the most valuable thing for the
company
 Good managers provide nice working atmoshere
where employees are more likely to suceed.
 Bad manager will produce toxic working
environment from which the entire company will
suffer
Levels of Management
 Top level managers – this group consists of
presidents, CEOs, presidents, board of directors,
etc.
 Middle level managers – these managers are
accountable to top level manager and are
responsible for managing lower level employees.
 Front line managers – these managers are
actively involved in operations, examples of
frontline management being a store manager,
manufacturing facility manager etc. (Hartzell)
Ways to Motivate Managers
 Praise – Sometimes the best way to keep managers
motivated is by saying simple “thank you”. Some
praise can do a lot when motivating managers. This
appreciation will be returned when manager does his
job with more pride and better care.
 Respect and appreciation – This is the least
expensive and least used method to motivate
managers. Most of the time small things make big
difference when dealing with managers. For some
managers money is not the issue but the respect and
appreciation from their leaders. Good managers don’t
like to be taken for granted and CEOs should know
that.
Ways to Motivate Managers
 Education and Growth – Managers are always
looking to get better in what they do. They are
aware that if they do not stay in line with the
current trends their future opportunities can
become limited. Providing them with the
opportunities to grow and develop outside the
ordinary job is seen as a big plus both for the
manager and the company.
 Consistent feedback – this can be a very effective
motivation technique when dealing with
managers. By listening, encouraging and giving
feedback, CEOs can make their managers feel
that they really care about them as a person, not
Ways to Motivate Managers
 Incentives – giving bonuses and raises is one of
the oldest ways to motivate managers. Financial
invectives are not the only incentive that can be
given to managers; other incentives can include
things such as vacation packages and health
benefits. This is proven to be effective, and it
should definitely not be ignored by employers.
EMPLOYEES AND
MOTIVATION
 The study done in 2011 surveyed 211 U.S. managers
on the issue of employee motivation and showed that:
 Seventy-nine percent of managers agreed with the
statement that “motivating employees is one of the
most important functions of my role as a leader.”
 Ninety-four percent of managers stated that work
force motivation was either important or critically
important to the success of their operation.
 Eighty-two percent of managers agreed with the
statement that “leaders can have a significant impact
on an employee’s level of motivation and
engagement.”
Survey continiued...
 Eighty-five percent of managers believed that an
employee’s level of motivation can have a
significant effect on an employee’s performance.
 Sixty-seven percent of managers believed that it
is getting more difficult to motivate employees
effectively.
 Lastly seventy-six percent of managers believed
that they must adjust their approach to motivating
each individual employee.
How to Motivate Employees
 According to the book 1001 Ways to Reward
Employees Nelson spent years researching
companies and asking employees what turns
them on and off about their employers.
 The vast majority of managers believe that
compensation is the key motivator for their
people.
 However, employees rated it last in a list of 10
potential motivators in the workplace.
How to Motivate Employees
 What Nelson found was that employees expect to
be compensated fairly for do doing an average
job, and merit raises are considered a right if they
do better.
 Furthermore, employees measure job satisfaction
largely based on their relationship with their
immediate supervisor.
 Simply put, people work for other people more
than they work for a company.
How to Motivate Employees
 Treat employees as partners.
 Keep people informed about performance and
management decisions.
 Ask for their views before making decisions that
affect them.
 Provide training and resources to do the job.
 Build an atmosphere of trust and team work
instead of defensiveness and fear.
How to Motivate Employees
 Avoid blame - mistakes are inevitable parts of the
learning process.
 Encourage people to ask for help when difficulties
arise.
 Keep communication open and honest.
 Schedule regular appraisals for employees to
review progress, problems and plans.
 Hold briefings to plan, establish goals, and
discuss special
 issues.
CONCLUSION
 There are five lessons that can be taken from this
research:
 1. Motivation plays an important role in a company
when it comes to performance
 2. Every employee is different and what works for one
might not for the other one
 3.Importance of recognizing different type of
managers and workers in order to effectively motivate
them
 4. Employees get motivated by small things
 5. Employees are much more sensitive to their
relationship with their managers and the atmosphere
surrounding the company rather than materialistic
goods
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Harvard Business Review. May2014, Vol. 92 Issue 5, p60-72. 11p. 1 Color
Photograph, 4 Graphs.
 Cherry, Kendra. "The 5 Most Important Theories of Motivation." About. Web. 15
Oct. 2014. <http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-
motivation.htm>.
 Sincero, Sarah. "Instinct Theory Of Motivation." Instinct Theory of Motivation.
Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <https://explorable.com/instinct-theory-of-motivation>.
 Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
 "Motivation in Psychology." Motivation in Psychology 101 at AllPsych Online.
Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://allpsych.com/psychology101/motivation.html>.
 Duffy, E. (1957). The psychological significance of the concept of "arousal" or
"activation." Psychological Review, 64, 265-275.
 Maslow's Hierarchy, Doc, 2010,
<http://www.businessballs.com/freematerialsinword/maslow'shierarchyofneedsdia
gram.doc>
 McKay, Matt. "Importance of Motivation and Goal Setting for Businesses." Small
Business. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-
motivation-goal-setting-businesses-2506.html>.
 "Motivating Employees." Management RSS.
Http://guides.wsj.com/management/managing-your-people/how-to-motivate-
employees/. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 "Theory X and Theory Y." Theory X and Theory Y. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcgregor/>.
 Hartzell, Sherri. "Management in Organizations: Top, Middle & Low-
Level Managers." Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <Management in Organizations:
Top, Middle & Low-Level Managers>.
 Six Ways to Motivate Talent in Demotivating Times, By: Remillard,
Brad. Collector (0010082X). Oct2012, Vol. 78 Issue 3, p28-29. 2p. 1
Color Photograph.
 Frost, Shelley. "What Motivates a CEO?" Small Business. Web. 15 Oct.
2014. <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/motivates-ceo-34633.html>.
 Gallo, Carmine. "Southwest Airlines Motivates Its Employees With A
Purpose Bigger Than A Paycheck." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 21 Jan.
2014. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.
 Longenecker, Clinton, How to Best Motivate Workers, Industrial
Management. Jan2011, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p8-13. 6p. 1 Illustration, 1
Chart.
 MIS Quarterly. Motivation Levels of Managers, Sep79, Vol. 3 Issue 3,
p47-56. 10p. 1 Diagram, 5 Charts.
 Managerial Motivaton and The Theory of the Firm Hickman, C.
Addison. American Economic Review. May55, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p544.
11p.

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Quality Work Life

  • 1. Bahadir Beadin Motivation of Employees in the Work Place
  • 2. Introduction  The purpose of this research presentation is to understand the importance of motivation and identify factors that are essential for effective motivation. This prestnati includes  (1) the definition of motivation;  (2) theories of motivation;  (3) what makes people work and any they work;  (4) reasons to motivate employees and managers;  (5) techniques to motivate managers;  (6) techniques to motivate employees;  (7) conclusion
  • 3. Definition  Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature.  In Business we described motivation as the level of desire the employees feels to perform  There are 5 theories that atempt to describe motivation. Those are instinct, incentive,arousal, drive and humanistic theory.
  • 4. Instinct Theory of Motivation  The Instinct Theory of Motivation views biological or genetic programming as the cause of motivation.  All humans have same motivation  Root of all motivations is dependable upon our motivation to survive  Our behavior is a result of our motivation to survive  Fails to describe more complex situations
  • 5. Incentive Motivation Theory  According to this view, people are pulled toward behaviors that offer positive incentives and pushed away from behaviors associated with negative incentives.  Try to get incentives  Avoid punishments
  • 6. Arousal Theory  The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are driven to perform actions in order to maintain an optimum level of physiological arousal  Motivation depends on the level of arousal  Balancing arousal level is the key  Too much or too litle arousal leads to bad performace
  • 7. Drive Theory of Motivation  Humans have internal biological needs which motivate us to perform a certain way.  Internal drives and arousal must be reduced  Aim is to achieve level of calmness  Examples can be hunder and thirst
  • 8. Humanistic Theory of Motivation
  • 9. WHY MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES  Companies look for a person who can fill the gap between the willingness and ability in order to get the best out of his work performance.  Motivation Results in:  Higher productivity  Increased revenue  Cost saving  Satisfied customers employees as well as the owners of the business
  • 10. UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE WORK  What do you think why people work?  Because they have to?  For the money?  How about these people:  Volunteers  Dollar-a-year executives
  • 11. UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE WORK  The benefits people get from paid and unpaid work have a strong correlation to their values.  Fulfilling their material needs  Satisfaction  Belongingness  Contribute to society  Personal achievement  Challenges
  • 12. UNDERSTANDING WHY PEOPLE WORK  Douglas McGregor, a founding faculty of Sloan School of Management provides us with two theories that explain human behavior.  Theory X  Thery Y
  • 13. Theory X  Theory X (authoritarian management style) assumes that  Humans dislilke work and try to avoid it  Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives.  The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
  • 14. Theory Y (participative style)  Effort in work is as natural as work and play.  People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.  Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.  People usually accept and often seek responsibility.  The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.  In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.
  • 15. MANAGERS AND MOTIVATION  Good manager is the most valuable thing for the company  Good managers provide nice working atmoshere where employees are more likely to suceed.  Bad manager will produce toxic working environment from which the entire company will suffer
  • 16. Levels of Management  Top level managers – this group consists of presidents, CEOs, presidents, board of directors, etc.  Middle level managers – these managers are accountable to top level manager and are responsible for managing lower level employees.  Front line managers – these managers are actively involved in operations, examples of frontline management being a store manager, manufacturing facility manager etc. (Hartzell)
  • 17. Ways to Motivate Managers  Praise – Sometimes the best way to keep managers motivated is by saying simple “thank you”. Some praise can do a lot when motivating managers. This appreciation will be returned when manager does his job with more pride and better care.  Respect and appreciation – This is the least expensive and least used method to motivate managers. Most of the time small things make big difference when dealing with managers. For some managers money is not the issue but the respect and appreciation from their leaders. Good managers don’t like to be taken for granted and CEOs should know that.
  • 18. Ways to Motivate Managers  Education and Growth – Managers are always looking to get better in what they do. They are aware that if they do not stay in line with the current trends their future opportunities can become limited. Providing them with the opportunities to grow and develop outside the ordinary job is seen as a big plus both for the manager and the company.  Consistent feedback – this can be a very effective motivation technique when dealing with managers. By listening, encouraging and giving feedback, CEOs can make their managers feel that they really care about them as a person, not
  • 19. Ways to Motivate Managers  Incentives – giving bonuses and raises is one of the oldest ways to motivate managers. Financial invectives are not the only incentive that can be given to managers; other incentives can include things such as vacation packages and health benefits. This is proven to be effective, and it should definitely not be ignored by employers.
  • 20. EMPLOYEES AND MOTIVATION  The study done in 2011 surveyed 211 U.S. managers on the issue of employee motivation and showed that:  Seventy-nine percent of managers agreed with the statement that “motivating employees is one of the most important functions of my role as a leader.”  Ninety-four percent of managers stated that work force motivation was either important or critically important to the success of their operation.  Eighty-two percent of managers agreed with the statement that “leaders can have a significant impact on an employee’s level of motivation and engagement.”
  • 21. Survey continiued...  Eighty-five percent of managers believed that an employee’s level of motivation can have a significant effect on an employee’s performance.  Sixty-seven percent of managers believed that it is getting more difficult to motivate employees effectively.  Lastly seventy-six percent of managers believed that they must adjust their approach to motivating each individual employee.
  • 22. How to Motivate Employees  According to the book 1001 Ways to Reward Employees Nelson spent years researching companies and asking employees what turns them on and off about their employers.  The vast majority of managers believe that compensation is the key motivator for their people.  However, employees rated it last in a list of 10 potential motivators in the workplace.
  • 23. How to Motivate Employees  What Nelson found was that employees expect to be compensated fairly for do doing an average job, and merit raises are considered a right if they do better.  Furthermore, employees measure job satisfaction largely based on their relationship with their immediate supervisor.  Simply put, people work for other people more than they work for a company.
  • 24. How to Motivate Employees  Treat employees as partners.  Keep people informed about performance and management decisions.  Ask for their views before making decisions that affect them.  Provide training and resources to do the job.  Build an atmosphere of trust and team work instead of defensiveness and fear.
  • 25. How to Motivate Employees  Avoid blame - mistakes are inevitable parts of the learning process.  Encourage people to ask for help when difficulties arise.  Keep communication open and honest.  Schedule regular appraisals for employees to review progress, problems and plans.  Hold briefings to plan, establish goals, and discuss special  issues.
  • 26. CONCLUSION  There are five lessons that can be taken from this research:  1. Motivation plays an important role in a company when it comes to performance  2. Every employee is different and what works for one might not for the other one  3.Importance of recognizing different type of managers and workers in order to effectively motivate them  4. Employees get motivated by small things  5. Employees are much more sensitive to their relationship with their managers and the atmosphere surrounding the company rather than materialistic goods
  • 27. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Harvard Business Review. May2014, Vol. 92 Issue 5, p60-72. 11p. 1 Color Photograph, 4 Graphs.  Cherry, Kendra. "The 5 Most Important Theories of Motivation." About. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of- motivation.htm>.  Sincero, Sarah. "Instinct Theory Of Motivation." Instinct Theory of Motivation. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <https://explorable.com/instinct-theory-of-motivation>.  Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.  "Motivation in Psychology." Motivation in Psychology 101 at AllPsych Online. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://allpsych.com/psychology101/motivation.html>.  Duffy, E. (1957). The psychological significance of the concept of "arousal" or "activation." Psychological Review, 64, 265-275.  Maslow's Hierarchy, Doc, 2010, <http://www.businessballs.com/freematerialsinword/maslow'shierarchyofneedsdia gram.doc>  McKay, Matt. "Importance of Motivation and Goal Setting for Businesses." Small Business. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance- motivation-goal-setting-businesses-2506.html>.  "Motivating Employees." Management RSS. Http://guides.wsj.com/management/managing-your-people/how-to-motivate- employees/. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.
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