Dr. D. Gopala Krishna
TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and
Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber
Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme
under Bangalore University
Under the Guidance of
Dr. T.V. Raju
Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore
CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Shivananda R Koteshwar
PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051
1. Define Motivation
Motivation means to move to activate. Anything that initiates activity whether
internal or external is motivating. Motivation is the activation (energizing) of
Motivation is a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency
or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. The
process of motivation lies in understanding the meaning and relationship between
needs, drives and incentives.
Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and
persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The three key elements are intensity
(How hard a person tries?), direction (channeled in the right direction?) and
persistence (how long a person can maintain the effort).
2. How motivation
Motivation is the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction
and energizes & directs goal-oriented behavior. Goal oriented behavior has a
positive impact on productivity.
The sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work do it well.
This is job satisfaction. This feeling is enhanced if those in authority recognize the
significance of the work done and its value. Thus positive motivation leads to
positive attitude towards work increasing the job satisfaction and eventually
A motivated person thus produces higher productivity and performance. Workers
who are content with their jobs, who feel challenged, who have the opportunity to
fulfill their goals will exhibit less destructive behavior on the job. They will be
absent less frequently, they will be less inclined to change jobs, and, most
importantly, they will produce at a higher level.
3. What is the importance of motivation?
Motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higher
quality work at a higher level of efficiency.
Motivation benefits for an individual are:
1) Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals
2) Motivation helps job satisfaction
3) Motivation will help in self-development of individual
4) An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team
Motivation benefits to organization are:
1) Puts human resources into action
2) Improves level of efficiency of employees resulting in increase in
productivity, reducing cost of operations and improving overall efficiency
3) Leads to achievement of organizational goals resulting in best possible
utilization of resources, creation of co-operative work environment, and
making employees goal directed
4) Builds friendly relationship improving stability, reduction of unrest in
employees and make employee adaptable to the changes.
4. Compare and contrast three important content theories of
Content Theory explains why human needs change with time. It explains why
human needs change, but not how they change. Content theories explain the
specific factors that motivate behavior.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the
largest, most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for selfactualization at the top. The hierarchy is (from bottom to top)
1) Physiological Needs: Physiological needs are the physical requirements
for human survival. This include Air, water, Food, Clothing, Shelter etc
2) Safety Needs: With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the
individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. This
includes Personal security, financial security, Health and well-being,
Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts.
3) Social Need: After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third
level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of
4) Esteem Need: All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the
need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical
human desire to be accepted and valued by others.
5) Self-Actualization: "What a man can be, he must be. This quotation forms
the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need
refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that
potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish
everything that one can, to become the most that one can be
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
ERG Theory is similar to the famous Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The three
core needs are:
1) Existence: These include the needs for things such as food, drink, shelter,
2) Relatedness: The need to feel connected to other individuals or a group.
Establishing and maintaining relationships fulfill these needs.
3) Growth: At the top of the hierarchy are Growth Needs, the needs for
personal achievement and self-actualization.
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg felt that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction do not exist on the same
continuum, but on dual scales. In other words, certain things, which Herzberg
called hygiene factors, could cause a person to become unhappy with their job in
their absence. These things, including pay, job security, company policy and
physical work environment, could never bring about job satisfaction. Hygiene
factors prevent dissatisfaction but do not lead to satisfaction.
Motivating factors, on the other hand, can increase job satisfaction. Giving
employees things such as a sense of recognition, responsibility, advancement, or
achievement can bring satisfaction about.
5. Explain Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation
In 1964, Vroom developed the Expectancy theory through his study of the
motivations behind decision-making. His theory is relevant to the study of
The VROOMS expectation theory interlinks effort to perform to results to reward.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why
individuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they
make decisions to achieve the end they value. Vroom introduces three variables
within the expectancy theory, which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and
instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element
over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy
(E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy).
Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and
Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)
For example: Employee desiring promotion feels that superior performance is a
strong factor in achieving the goal.