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Motivating Employess.pptx

  1. Motivation is a driving force which affects the choice of alternatives in the behavior of a person. It improves, stimulates and induces employees leading to goal- oriented behavior.
  2. EXAMPLE  Promotion is a motivating factor as employees work to achieve preset targets for getting a promotion.  Motivation can be monetary, e.g.  Rewards given in the form of a car or a hike in the salary or it can be non-monetary in the form of public appreciation.
  3. •. What possible method could it use to motivate it employees •. What type of motivation will be most effective •. How it can ensure that its employees are satisfied with their jobs •. How motivation can improve its value This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  4.  Benefits of a well-motivated workforce  Better productivity (amount produced per employee). ...  Lower levels of absenteeism as the employees are content with their working lives.  Lower levels of staff turnover (the number of employees leaving the business). ...  Improved industrial relations with trade unions. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY.
  5. THE VALUE OF MOTVA TION  (1) Improves Performance Level:  The ability to do work and willingness to do work both affect the efficiency of a person. The ability to do work is obtained with the help of education and training and willingness to do work is obtained with the help of motivation.  Willingness is more important in comparison to ability. For example, a person is highly educated and he is recruited on this very basis. But it is not essential that he will do outstanding work.  (2) Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees:  Some employees of an organization have a negative attitude. They always think that doing more work will not bring any credit. A manager uses various techniques to change this attitude.  3) Reduction in Employee Turnover:  The reputation of an organization is affected by the employee turnover. This creates a lot of problems for the managers. A lot of time and money go waste in repeatedly recruiting employees and giving them education and training.  Only motivation can save an organization from such wastage. Motivated people work for a longer time in the organization and there is a decline in the rate of turnover.  4) Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organization:  In some of the organizations, the rate of absenteeism is high. There are many causes for this- poor work conditions, poor relations with colleagues and superiors, no recognition in the organization, insufficient reward, etc. A manager removes all such deficiencies and motivates the employees. Motivated employees do not remain absent from work as the workplace becomes a source of joy for them.
  6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1943)
  7. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC.
  8. • Theory X relies on the authoritarian style of management, where the managers are required to give instructions and keep a close check on each employee. As it is assumed, the employees are not motivated, and they dislike working. This theory is based on the following assumptions: • The employee is lazy and dislikes work. • He is not ambitious and dislikes responsibility and therefore prefers to be led. • Management is responsible for assembling all the factors of production, Viz. Money, material, equipment, people. • Theory Y relies on the participative style of management, where the managers assume that the employees are self-directed and self- motivated to accomplish the organizational objectives. Thus, here the management attempts to get the maximum output with least efforts on their part. Following are the assumptions of Theory Y: • The average human being does not inherently dislike work, they are creative and self-motivated and likes to work with greater responsibilities. • Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and therefore the threat of punishment is not only the means for getting the desired results.
  9.  Expectancy is the belief that the more efforts you put in, the better will be the result or performance. There are two types of expectancy: The Effort- Performance expectancy and the Performance-Outcome expectancy.  Instrumentality is a notion that if you perform well, a desirable result will be received.  Valence is the priority one gives to the expected outcome or result. Vroom differentiated between efforts people put in, their performance and the outcome. This principle works on perception.  Porter-Lawler Model: This is an extended and polished version of Vroom’s expectancy model. It states that an individual’s motivation to finish an activity is driven by reward they expect to get on completion of the activity. The Porter-Lawler model is presented in the figure.
  10. Adam’s Equity Theory, also known as the Equity Theory of Motivation, was developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace behavioral psychologist. Equity Theory is based on the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness.
  11. COMMON INPUT INCLUDES  The number of hours worked (effort).  The commitment shown.  The enthusiasm shown.  The experience brought to the role.  Any personal sacrifices made.  The responsibilities and duties of the individual in the role. • Salary • Bonus • Pension • Annual holiday allowance • Company car • Stock options • Recognition • Promotion • Performance appraisals • Flexibility of work arrangements • Sense of achievement • Learning COMMON OUTPUT INCLUDES
  12. The Reinforcement Theory of Motivation was proposed by B.F. Skinner and his associates. This theory posits that behavior is the function of its consequences, which means an individual develops a behavior after performing certain actions.
  13. • The reinforcement theory of motivation is based on the “Law of Effect” concept, i.e. an individual is likely to repeat those actions having the positive consequences, and will avoid those behaviors that result in negative or unpleasant outcomes. • The behaviors that elicit consequences is called as operant behavior and reinforcement theory work on the relationship between the operant behavior and the associated consequences and, therefore, is often called as Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning means, the change in the behavior caused due to the reinforcement (Positive reward or punishment) given after the response. • The reinforcement theory of motivation mainly focuses on what happens when an individual takes some action. It is observed, that people tend to repeat those activities which gives them pleasure and avoid the activities with negative consequences.