Motivation is a
driving force which
affects the choice of
alternatives in the
behavior of a person.
leading to goal-
Promotion is a motivating factor as employees work to achieve preset
targets for getting a promotion.
Motivation can be monetary,
Rewards given in the form of a car or a hike in the salary or it can be
non-monetary in the form of public appreciation.
•. What possible method
could it use to motivate
•. What type of
motivation will be most
•. How it can ensure that
its employees are
satisfied with their jobs
•. How motivation can
improve its value
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Benefits of a well-motivated
Better productivity (amount
produced per employee). ...
Lower levels of absenteeism
as the employees are content
with their working lives.
Lower levels of staff turnover
(the number of employees
leaving the business). ...
Improved industrial relations
with trade unions.
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(1) Improves Performance Level:
The ability to do work and willingness to do work both affect the efficiency of a person. The
ability to do work is obtained with the help of education and training and willingness to do
work is obtained with the help of motivation.
Willingness is more important in comparison to ability. For example, a person is highly
educated and he is recruited on this very basis. But it is not essential that he will do
(2) Helps to Change Negative or Indifferent Attitudes of Employees:
Some employees of an organization have a negative attitude. They always think that doing
more work will not bring any credit. A manager uses various techniques to change this
3) Reduction in Employee Turnover:
The reputation of an organization is affected by the employee turnover. This creates a lot of
problems for the managers. A lot of time and money go waste in repeatedly recruiting
employees and giving them education and training.
Only motivation can save an organization from such wastage. Motivated people work for a
longer time in the organization and there is a decline in the rate of turnover.
4) Helps to Reduce Absenteeism in the Organization:
In some of the organizations, the rate of absenteeism is high. There are many causes for this-
poor work conditions, poor relations with colleagues and superiors, no recognition in the
organization, insufficient reward, etc. A manager removes all such deficiencies and motivates
the employees. Motivated employees do not remain absent from work as the workplace becomes
a source of joy for them.
• Theory X relies on the authoritarian style of
management, where the managers are
required to give instructions and keep a close
check on each employee. As it is assumed,
the employees are not motivated, and they
dislike working. This theory is based on the
• The employee is lazy and dislikes work.
• He is not ambitious and dislikes
responsibility and therefore prefers to be led.
• Management is responsible for assembling
all the factors of production, Viz. Money,
material, equipment, people.
• Theory Y relies on the participative style of
management, where the managers assume that
the employees are self-directed and self- motivated
to accomplish the organizational objectives. Thus,
here the management attempts to get the
maximum output with least efforts on their part.
Following are the assumptions of Theory Y:
• The average human being does not inherently
dislike work, they are creative and self-motivated
and likes to work with greater responsibilities.
• Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and
therefore the threat of punishment is not only the
means for getting the desired results.
Expectancy is the belief that the more efforts
you put in, the better will be the result or
performance. There are two types of
expectancy: The Effort- Performance
expectancy and the Performance-Outcome
Instrumentality is a notion that if you perform
well, a desirable result will be received.
Valence is the priority one gives to the expected
outcome or result. Vroom differentiated
between efforts people put in, their
performance and the outcome. This principle
works on perception.
Porter-Lawler Model: This is an extended and
polished version of Vroom’s expectancy model. It
states that an individual’s motivation to finish an
activity is driven by reward they expect to get on
completion of the activity. The Porter-Lawler
model is presented in the figure.
Adam’s Equity Theory,
also known as the
Equity Theory of
developed in 1963 by
John Stacey Adams, a
Equity Theory is based
on the idea that
motivated by fairness.
The number of hours worked
The commitment shown.
The enthusiasm shown.
The experience brought to the
Any personal sacrifices made.
The responsibilities and duties
of the individual in the role.
• Annual holiday allowance
• Company car
• Stock options
• Performance appraisals
• Flexibility of work
• Sense of achievement
Theory of Motivation was
proposed by B.F. Skinner
and his associates. This
theory posits that
behavior is the function
of its consequences,
which means an
individual develops a
after performing certain
• The reinforcement theory of motivation is based on the “Law of
Effect” concept, i.e. an individual is likely to repeat those actions
having the positive consequences, and will avoid those behaviors
that result in negative or unpleasant outcomes.
• The behaviors that elicit consequences is called as operant behavior
and reinforcement theory work on the relationship between the
operant behavior and the associated consequences and, therefore, is
often called as Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning means,
the change in the behavior caused due to the reinforcement
(Positive reward or punishment) given after the response.
• The reinforcement theory of motivation mainly focuses on what
happens when an individual takes some action. It is observed, that
people tend to repeat those activities which gives them pleasure and
avoid the activities with negative consequences.