Krill Meal


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Replacement of fishmeal for Krill meal in shrimp diets

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Krill Meal

  1. 1. GROWTH OF Litopenaeus vannamei FED WITH KRILL MEAL IN REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL AND OTHER HIGH COST-IMPACT INGREDIENT SOURCES<br />Alberto J.P. Nunes1, Sigve Nordrum, Marcelo V.C. Sá, Hassan Sabry-Neto<br />LABOMAR*. Brazil<br />1E-mail:<br />*Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará<br />WAS 2009 Meeting<br />Veracruz, Mexico<br />Shrimp Nutrition Special Session<br />September 27th, 2009<br />11:30 am<br />
  2. 2. Rationale<br /><ul><li>Krill meal and krill oil: promising candidates for regular application in aquaculture feeds
  3. 3. Krill is the world’s largest animal biomass, with estimates varying between 150 and 700 million tons
  4. 4. TAC is 1% or 4 million tons; in ‘08 about 0.5 million tons caught
  5. 5. Krill meal studies with penaeids focused on its use as a feed supplement to enhance growth or to promote feed intake
  6. 6. No work exists on the use of krill meal or krill oil as ingredient sources in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei</li></ul>Photo credits:<br /> AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway<br />
  7. 7. Objectives<br />To evaluate the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei when fed diets containing Krill meal and Krill oil under partial or full replacement of fishmeal, fish oil, soy lecithin and cholesterol<br />To determine optimum inclusion levels of Krill meal in diets for the white shrimp in regards its growth and economical performance<br />Major protein and lipid ingredients used in experimental diets for growth trials with L. vannamei<br />
  8. 8. LABOMAR/UFC<br />Eusébio. BRAZIL<br />Pacoti River Estuary<br />Indoor tanks<br />Outdoor tanks<br />19/jan/2009<br />
  9. 9. Rearing System<br />INDOOR<br />25 tanks<br />OUTDOOR<br />25 tanks<br />Clear water<br />500-L volume 0.57 m2 area<br />100 shrimp/m2<br />Green water <br />1.000-L vol.<br />1.02 m2 area<br />60 shrimp/m2<br />
  10. 10. Data Collection<br />Started on experimental diets at 3.55 ± 0.12 g shrimp<br />Fed twice daily in feeding trays at 0730 and 1600 h on a consumption basis<br />Daily water analysis<br /><ul><li>pH, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen</li></ul>3.5-weekly basis – 10 shrimp/tank were weighed<br />After 72 days shrimp were counted and individually weighed<br />weekly growth rate (g/week)<br />Final body weight (g)<br />final survival (%)<br />yield (g/m2)<br />food conversion ratio (FCR) <br />Test parameters were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey Multiple Range Test at the P = 0.05 level<br />Feeding protocol used to adjust the amount of feed delivered based estimated consumption from trays<br />Photo: Otávio S. Castro<br />
  11. 11. Fishmeal, Anchovy<br />4.07% <br />1.57%<br />3.04%<br />5.07%<br />5.01%<br />1.92%<br />2.76%<br />2.55%<br />3.51%<br />EAA (as is)<br />ARG<br />HIS<br />ISO<br />LEU<br />LYS<br />MET<br />PHE<br />THR<br />VAL<br />versus<br />24.74%<br />Other<br />67.65%<br />Protein<br />7.61%<br />Lipid<br />Krill meal<br />6.11%<br />2.61%<br />3.85%<br />6.61%<br />7.22%<br />2.66%<br />3.81%<br />3.19%<br />3.99%<br />EAA (as is)<br />ARG<br />HIS<br />ISO<br />LEU<br />LYS<br />MET<br />PHE<br />THR<br />VAL<br />14.90%<br />Other<br />EFA (% of total lipid)<br />ƩHUFA n-3<br />ƩHUFA n-6<br />4.32% TL<br />1.80% TL<br />60.10%<br />Protein<br />25.00%<br />Lipid<br />EFA (% of total lipid)<br />ƩHUFA n-3<br />ƩHUFA n-6<br />22.11% TL<br />4.99% TL<br />&gt; 40% phospholipid<br />
  12. 12. Protein Ingredients<br />Fixed portion<br />
  13. 13. Aminoacid composition (% as is)<br />7.00<br />Basal<br />6.00<br />KO25<br />KM10<br />5.00<br />KM50<br />KM50<br />KM110<br />KM10<br />4.00<br />KM110<br />3.00<br />2.00<br />1.00<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />0.00<br />ALA<br />ARG<br />ASP<br />GLY<br />ISO<br />LEU<br />GLU<br />LYS<br />CYS<br />MET<br />PHE<br />TYR<br />THR<br />TRY<br />PRO<br />VAL<br />HIS<br />SER<br />
  14. 14. Water Quality<br />Salinity<br />INDOOR<br />Temperature<br />43<br />8.60<br />100 shrimp/m2<br />pH<br />C)<br />8.40<br />41<br />o<br />Clear-Water System<br />Salinity: 32.4 ± 2.6 ppt (n = 1.225) <br />pH: 7.72 ± 0.23 (n = 1.225) <br />Temperature: 27.4 ± 0.8oC (n = 1.225) <br />8.20<br />39<br />8.00<br />37<br />7.80<br />35<br />pH<br />Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (<br />7.60<br />33<br />7.40<br />31<br />7.20<br />29<br />7.00<br />27<br />6.80<br />25<br />6.60<br />1<br />5<br />7<br />10<br />13<br />16<br />19<br />21<br />24<br />28<br />31<br />34<br />36<br />40<br />42<br />44<br />47<br />52<br />55<br />57<br />61<br />63<br />65<br />67<br />71<br />Days of Rearing<br />OUTDOOR<br />60 shrimp/m2<br />Green-Water System<br />Salinity: 36.6 ± 3.5 ppt (n = 1.150)<br />pH: 8.13 ± 0.17 (n = 1.150)<br />Temperature: 29.6 ± 0.9oC (n = 1.150) <br />43<br />8.60<br />8.40<br />41<br />8.20<br />39<br />8.00<br />37<br />Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)<br />7.80<br />35<br />pH<br />7.60<br />33<br />7.40<br />31<br />7.20<br />29<br />7.00<br />27<br />6.80<br />25<br />6.60<br />1<br />4<br />7<br />11<br />13<br />15<br />18<br />20<br />23<br />28<br />30<br />33<br />37<br />40<br />42<br />46<br />49<br />54<br />56<br />60<br />63<br />68<br />70<br />Days of Rearing<br />
  15. 15. 100%<br />Shrimp Survival<br />INDOOR<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />83.9%<br />83.5%<br />90%<br />81.4%<br />80.7%<br />80.0%<br />80%<br />70%<br />KM50<br />Basal<br />KM110<br />KM10<br />KO25<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />100%<br />OUTDOOR<br />93.4%<br />94.4%<br />91.8%<br />91.5%<br />Clear water system promoted a statistically lower survival rate (81.4 ± 7.3%) compared to the green water system (91.4 ± 5.4%) <br />85.9%<br />90%<br />80%<br />70%<br />KM50<br />Basal<br />KM110<br />KM10<br />KO25<br />
  16. 16. Shrimp Final Body Weight (g)<br />OUTDOOR<br />P &lt; 0.05<br />14.62<br />INDOOR<br />15.0<br />14.62<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />14.19<br />b<br />b<br />13.94<br />14.00<br />14.0<br />ab<br />a<br />a<br />13.32<br />13.32<br />13.05<br />13.05<br />12.93<br />13.0<br />12.0<br />11.0<br />10.0<br />KM10<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KM10<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />Under green water, shrimp fed the Basal and KO25 diets achieved a statistically higher final body weight than those fed diets KM10 and KM50<br />
  17. 17. Shrimp Weekly Growth (g/week)<br />OUTDOOR<br />INDOOR<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />1.2<br />1.08<br />1.06<br />1.02<br />1.05<br />1.01<br />1.01<br />1.01<br />0.99<br />0.98<br />0.98<br />0.8<br />0.4<br />KM10<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KM10<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />Under green water conditions. shrimp consistently kept individual growth rates above 1.00 g/wk over the growth cycle. in clear-water tanks they remained below or close to 1.00 g/wk regardless of diet type. A higher shrimp growth was achieved in green water than in clear water conditions (P &lt; 0.05)<br />
  18. 18. Shrimp Final Yield (g/m2)<br />808<br />900<br />801<br />INDOOR<br />772<br />770<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />778<br />OUTDOOR<br />P &gt; 0.05<br />610<br />650<br />578<br />555<br />576<br />525<br />400<br />KM10<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />KM110<br />KM50<br />KM10<br />KO25<br />Basal<br />Due to a more intensive rearing condition for shrimp reared indoors. a 37% higher yield was achieved in clear water than under green water conditions (P &lt; 0.05). This occurred despite a lower final shrimp survival obtained in clear water versus in green water (81.4 ± 7.3% versus 91.4 ± 5.4%. respectively). <br />
  19. 19. Economical Analysis<br />Clear water system: <br />12% higher profit with diets containing Krill meal or Krill oil<br />Green water system: <br />23% higher profit with diets containing Krill meal or Krill oil<br />
  20. 20. Conclusions<br />Krill meal was able to fully replace fishmeal and soy lecithin at no significant cost to shrimp performance<br />The use of Krill meal at all inclusion levels adopted (1%, 5% and 11%) and Krill oil at 2.5% led to a higher economical return when compared to a diet containing 18.5% fishmeal, 2.0% fish oil, 1.5% soy lecithin and 0.15% cholesterol<br />