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Krill Meal

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Replacement of fishmeal for Krill meal in shrimp diets

Replacement of fishmeal for Krill meal in shrimp diets


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  • 1. GROWTH OF Litopenaeus vannamei FED WITH KRILL MEAL IN REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL AND OTHER HIGH COST-IMPACT INGREDIENT SOURCES
    Alberto J.P. Nunes1, Sigve Nordrum, Marcelo V.C. Sá, Hassan Sabry-Neto
    LABOMAR*. Brazil
    1E-mail: albertojpn@uol.com.br
    *Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará
    WAS 2009 Meeting
    Veracruz, Mexico
    Shrimp Nutrition Special Session
    September 27th, 2009
    11:30 am
  • 2. Rationale
    • Krill meal and krill oil: promising candidates for regular application in aquaculture feeds
    • 3. Krill is the world’s largest animal biomass, with estimates varying between 150 and 700 million tons
    • 4. TAC is 1% or 4 million tons; in ‘08 about 0.5 million tons caught
    • 5. Krill meal studies with penaeids focused on its use as a feed supplement to enhance growth or to promote feed intake
    • 6. No work exists on the use of krill meal or krill oil as ingredient sources in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei
    Photo credits:
    AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway
  • 7. Objectives
    To evaluate the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei when fed diets containing Krill meal and Krill oil under partial or full replacement of fishmeal, fish oil, soy lecithin and cholesterol
    To determine optimum inclusion levels of Krill meal in diets for the white shrimp in regards its growth and economical performance
    Major protein and lipid ingredients used in experimental diets for growth trials with L. vannamei
  • 8. LABOMAR/UFC
    Eusébio. BRAZIL
    Pacoti River Estuary
    Indoor tanks
    Outdoor tanks
    19/jan/2009
  • 9. Rearing System
    INDOOR
    25 tanks
    OUTDOOR
    25 tanks
    Clear water
    500-L volume 0.57 m2 area
    100 shrimp/m2
    Green water
    1.000-L vol.
    1.02 m2 area
    60 shrimp/m2
  • 10. Data Collection
    Started on experimental diets at 3.55 ± 0.12 g shrimp
    Fed twice daily in feeding trays at 0730 and 1600 h on a consumption basis
    Daily water analysis
    • pH, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen
    3.5-weekly basis – 10 shrimp/tank were weighed
    After 72 days shrimp were counted and individually weighed
    weekly growth rate (g/week)
    Final body weight (g)
    final survival (%)
    yield (g/m2)
    food conversion ratio (FCR)
    Test parameters were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey Multiple Range Test at the P = 0.05 level
    Feeding protocol used to adjust the amount of feed delivered based estimated consumption from trays
    Photo: Otávio S. Castro
  • 11. Fishmeal, Anchovy
    4.07%
    1.57%
    3.04%
    5.07%
    5.01%
    1.92%
    2.76%
    2.55%
    3.51%
    EAA (as is)
    ARG
    HIS
    ISO
    LEU
    LYS
    MET
    PHE
    THR
    VAL
    versus
    24.74%
    Other
    67.65%
    Protein
    7.61%
    Lipid
    Krill meal
    6.11%
    2.61%
    3.85%
    6.61%
    7.22%
    2.66%
    3.81%
    3.19%
    3.99%
    EAA (as is)
    ARG
    HIS
    ISO
    LEU
    LYS
    MET
    PHE
    THR
    VAL
    14.90%
    Other
    EFA (% of total lipid)
    ƩHUFA n-3
    ƩHUFA n-6
    4.32% TL
    1.80% TL
    60.10%
    Protein
    25.00%
    Lipid
    EFA (% of total lipid)
    ƩHUFA n-3
    ƩHUFA n-6
    22.11% TL
    4.99% TL
    > 40% phospholipid
  • 12. Protein Ingredients
    Fixed portion
  • 13. Aminoacid composition (% as is)
    7.00
    Basal
    6.00
    KO25
    KM10
    5.00
    KM50
    KM50
    KM110
    KM10
    4.00
    KM110
    3.00
    2.00
    1.00
    KO25
    Basal
    0.00
    ALA
    ARG
    ASP
    GLY
    ISO
    LEU
    GLU
    LYS
    CYS
    MET
    PHE
    TYR
    THR
    TRY
    PRO
    VAL
    HIS
    SER
  • 14. Water Quality
    Salinity
    INDOOR
    Temperature
    43
    8.60
    100 shrimp/m2
    pH
    C)
    8.40
    41
    o
    Clear-Water System
    Salinity: 32.4 ± 2.6 ppt (n = 1.225)
    pH: 7.72 ± 0.23 (n = 1.225)
    Temperature: 27.4 ± 0.8oC (n = 1.225)
    8.20
    39
    8.00
    37
    7.80
    35
    pH
    Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (
    7.60
    33
    7.40
    31
    7.20
    29
    7.00
    27
    6.80
    25
    6.60
    1
    5
    7
    10
    13
    16
    19
    21
    24
    28
    31
    34
    36
    40
    42
    44
    47
    52
    55
    57
    61
    63
    65
    67
    71
    Days of Rearing
    OUTDOOR
    60 shrimp/m2
    Green-Water System
    Salinity: 36.6 ± 3.5 ppt (n = 1.150)
    pH: 8.13 ± 0.17 (n = 1.150)
    Temperature: 29.6 ± 0.9oC (n = 1.150)
    43
    8.60
    8.40
    41
    8.20
    39
    8.00
    37
    Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)
    7.80
    35
    pH
    7.60
    33
    7.40
    31
    7.20
    29
    7.00
    27
    6.80
    25
    6.60
    1
    4
    7
    11
    13
    15
    18
    20
    23
    28
    30
    33
    37
    40
    42
    46
    49
    54
    56
    60
    63
    68
    70
    Days of Rearing
  • 15. 100%
    Shrimp Survival
    INDOOR
    P > 0.05
    83.9%
    83.5%
    90%
    81.4%
    80.7%
    80.0%
    80%
    70%
    KM50
    Basal
    KM110
    KM10
    KO25
    P > 0.05
    100%
    OUTDOOR
    93.4%
    94.4%
    91.8%
    91.5%
    Clear water system promoted a statistically lower survival rate (81.4 ± 7.3%) compared to the green water system (91.4 ± 5.4%)
    85.9%
    90%
    80%
    70%
    KM50
    Basal
    KM110
    KM10
    KO25
  • 16. Shrimp Final Body Weight (g)
    OUTDOOR
    P < 0.05
    14.62
    INDOOR
    15.0
    14.62
    P > 0.05
    14.19
    b
    b
    13.94
    14.00
    14.0
    ab
    a
    a
    13.32
    13.32
    13.05
    13.05
    12.93
    13.0
    12.0
    11.0
    10.0
    KM10
    KM110
    KM50
    KO25
    Basal
    KM110
    KM50
    KM10
    KO25
    Basal
    Under green water, shrimp fed the Basal and KO25 diets achieved a statistically higher final body weight than those fed diets KM10 and KM50
  • 17. Shrimp Weekly Growth (g/week)
    OUTDOOR
    INDOOR
    P > 0.05
    P > 0.05
    1.2
    1.08
    1.06
    1.02
    1.05
    1.01
    1.01
    1.01
    0.99
    0.98
    0.98
    0.8
    0.4
    KM10
    KM110
    KM50
    KO25
    Basal
    KM110
    KM50
    KM10
    KO25
    Basal
    Under green water conditions. shrimp consistently kept individual growth rates above 1.00 g/wk over the growth cycle. in clear-water tanks they remained below or close to 1.00 g/wk regardless of diet type. A higher shrimp growth was achieved in green water than in clear water conditions (P < 0.05)
  • 18. Shrimp Final Yield (g/m2)
    808
    900
    801
    INDOOR
    772
    770
    P > 0.05
    778
    OUTDOOR
    P > 0.05
    610
    650
    578
    555
    576
    525
    400
    KM10
    KM110
    KM50
    KO25
    Basal
    KM110
    KM50
    KM10
    KO25
    Basal
    Due to a more intensive rearing condition for shrimp reared indoors. a 37% higher yield was achieved in clear water than under green water conditions (P < 0.05). This occurred despite a lower final shrimp survival obtained in clear water versus in green water (81.4 ± 7.3% versus 91.4 ± 5.4%. respectively).
  • 19. Economical Analysis
    Clear water system:
    12% higher profit with diets containing Krill meal or Krill oil
    Green water system:
    23% higher profit with diets containing Krill meal or Krill oil
  • 20. Conclusions
    Krill meal was able to fully replace fishmeal and soy lecithin at no significant cost to shrimp performance
    The use of Krill meal at all inclusion levels adopted (1%, 5% and 11%) and Krill oil at 2.5% led to a higher economical return when compared to a diet containing 18.5% fishmeal, 2.0% fish oil, 1.5% soy lecithin and 0.15% cholesterol

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