Assessing the potential of polychaete meal in shrimp feeds


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Detritivorous marine polychaete worms are farmed commercially as live bait for sport angling and most recently as an ingredient in formulated aquaculture feeds.

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Assessing the potential of polychaete meal in shrimp feeds

  1. 1. May | June 2014 Assessing the potential of polychaete meal in shrimp feeds The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. D etritivorous marine polychaete worms are farmed commer- cially as live bait for sport angling and most recently as an ingredient in formulated aquaculture feeds. Polychaetes are considered as an impor- tant constituent for shrimp maturation diets and as live feeds for flatfish. They contain long- chain fatty acids, prostaglandins and bromo- phenols, with the latter attributed to enhance the seafood flavour of the farmed products. Especially members of the Nereidae (e.g. Nereis virens, N. diversicolor) are currently being used and cultured for this purpose. The following study evaluated the use of formulated feeds containing polychaete meal (from Nereis virens) in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei combining both digestibility and growth trials. Livestock, culture conditions and experimental design Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus van- namei spawned and subsequently reared at the Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture were used for all the trials in this study. Those shrimp were offspring of a brood- stock acquired from a commercial hatchery (Bonaire, Caribbean). Polychaete meal was obtained as freeze dried product from a polychaete farm in South Wales and marketed by Prochaete Innovations Ltd. Detailed composition is described in Table 1. All the trials were set up indoors as part of a recirculation system, which included mechanical and bio-filtration units, a protein skimmer and a sand filter. Water tempera- ture was kept at 28°C, salinity at 32%, and photoperiod was set at 12 hours of light daily. Temperature and dissolved-oxygen lev- els were measured daily, while total ammo- Table 1: Apparent digestibility coefficients (percent) of polychaete and fishmeal as determined in shrimp Fish meal* Polychaete meal** Dry matter % 69.4 72.7 Protein % 84.5 85.2 Organic matter % 78.1 74.4 Energy % 82.2 76.2 * Composition of fish meal per kg as fed: Dry Matter 933g, Crude protein 646 g, Lipid 99g, Ash 183g, Gross energy 18.39 MJ. ** Composition of freeze dried polychaete meal per kg as fed: Dry Matter 950, Crude protein 543 g, Lipid 110, Ash 120g, Gross energy 20.5 MJ. Table 2: Formulation and composition of experimental feeds (per kg as fed) Ingredients Fishmeal 30% Polychaete 60% Polychaete 100% Polychaete Formulation Fish meal 520 340 180 0 Polychaete meal 0 180 340 520 Wheat gluten 100 100 100 100 Wheat starch 280 270 260 255 Vitamin &Mineral 10 10 10 10 Di-Calcium- Phosphate 0 10 20 30 Fish oil 50 50 50 45 Binder (Alginate) 20 20 20 20 Analyzed Composition Dry matter, g 918 920 925 922 Ash, g 130 128 127 125 Lipid, g 102 106 109 107 Crude Protein, g 410 413 400 392 Gross Energy, MJ 18.40 18.51 18.67 18.77 Digestible Protein*, g 352 354 344 338 Digestible Energy*, MJ 14.83 14.72 14.67 14.53 DP/DE ratio g/MJ 23.7 24.1 23.4 23.3 * incorporating results from digestibility trial Assessing the potential of polychaete meal in shrimp feeds by Ingrid Lupatsch, PhD, Center for Sustainable Aquaculture Research, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom 10 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | May-June 2014 FEATURE
  3. 3. EMS Forum:Managing the Shrimp Epidemic First reported in Asia in 2009, Shrimp Early MortalitySyndromehascausedmajorproduction problems in the cultivation of shrimp in countries suchasChina,Malaysia,Thailand,andVietnam. 27-28 JUNE 2014 KasetsartUniversity,Bangkok,Thailand A focus on how to best manage the issues facing shrimp farmers in the Asianterritories Supportedby Organisedby nia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and pH were measured weekly. Feeds were prepared by mixing the dry ingredients with a binder and water, extruded through a meat grinder and afterwards dried in a 45oC oven for 24 hours. The resulting pellets had a diameter of 2.5mm and were stable up to 24 hours in water. Digestibility Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and organic matter of fish meal and poly- chaete meal were determined in replicates in shrimp of ~ 15g size according to Lupatsch et al. 1997. Chromic oxide was used as the non- absorbed marker (0.8 percent inclusion) and faeces were collected by siphoning. Faecal matter from a given tank was pooled over the trial period until a sufficient amount had been collected for subsequent analyses. Digestibility of ingredients were calculated using well established equations and are pre- sented in Table 1. Growth trial Thirty shrimp of 1.7g initially were stocked in 300L tanks providing triplicates per treat- ment. Feeds were formulated to contain 40 percent protein and 10 percent lipid and to gradually include polychaete meal at the expense of fish meal (Table 2). Shrimp were fed manually to apparent satiation up to three times daily. Any uneaten pellets were collected at the end of the day and accounted for. Feed intake was thus quantified and evalu- ated in relation to growth response. The trial lasted for 42 days and shrimp were sampled initially and at the end of the trial for subsequent chemical analyses. Through comparative body composition of the shrimp carcass the relationship between dietary pro- tein and energy intake and protein and energy deposition was assessed, which allowed esti- mation of the utilization efficiency of the feed ingredients incorporated in the diets. Results and discussion Polychaete containing feeds were well accepted by the shrimp and results indicated that digestibility and efficacy of polychaete meal was equivalent to fishmeal. Survival of shrimp on all dietary treatments was above 84 percent with no significant difference among treatments. There was also no significant difference in growth and FCR of shrimp at any time during the experiment (Table 3). Nevertheless, there is a trend that shrimp on the ‘combination’ diets were growing slightly faster than the diets based on a single ingredi- ent (Table 3). Equally, no difference in whole body com- Table 3: Performance parameters of juvenile L. vannamei after 42 days of growth at 28oC (average ± STD) Diet treatment Fishmeal 30% Polychaete 60% Polychaete 100% Polychaete Weight initial (g) 1.74 ± 0.06 1.73 ±0.06 1.78 ± 0.00 1.75 ± 0.03 Weight final (g) 5.38 ± 0.37 6.24 ± 0.22 6.33 ± 1.01 5.40 ± 0.45 SGR* 2.69 ± 0.09 3.05 ±0.01 3.01 ± 0.37 2.68 ± 0.23 Feed intake g/ day/shrimp 0.21 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.02 FCR** 2.44 ± 0.19 2.01 ± 0.07 2.00 ± 0.19 2.43 ± 0.16 Survival (%) 86.7 ± 6.7 88.9 ± 6.9 85.6 ± 16.4 84.4 ± 5.1 * SGR = Specific growth rate ** FCR = Feed conversion ratio = g of feed fed per g of live weight gained. May-June 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 11 FEATURE Aquatic China 2014 21-22 SEPTEMBER 2014 Kuntai Hotel Beijing, China part of: Beijing Throughout the world consumers’ behaviour and attitude towards food has been changing and, as a result, the industries supplying food need to focus on the exchange of information in order to meet these new demands. The emphasis of the Aquatic China 2014 two-day conference is creating an opportunity pathway for those in China’s aquaculture industry to connect with some of the world’s experts on aquaculture research, science, nutrition, feed formulation, economic production, food safety, quality assurance and certification. FEATURE Die and roll re-working machines O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail: FEATURE Die and roll re-working machines O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail:
  4. 4. position of shrimp was detected among the different treatments (Table 4). The efficiencies of energy and protein utilization were calculated from energy and protein gained in relation to energy and protein consumed. Here, the superiority of the ‘mixed’ feeds was more apparent. Gross energy retention efficiency was 15.1 percent for L. vannamei fed the 60% polychaete meal, which was significantly higher than the energy efficiency of shrimp on the fish meal and polychaete meal only diets (Figure 1). Similarly the crude pro- tein retention efficiency was significantly higher for L. vannamei fed the 60 percent polychaete at 22.7 percent compared to shrimp fed the single ingredient diets (Figure 1). No significant difference was observed for energy or protein retention efficiency for shrimp fed the polychaete only diet compared to the 100 percent control fishmeal diet. Conclusion Polychaete meal inclusion in the diets of L. vannamei supported equal growth perfor- mance and feed efficiency compared to a standard fish meal diet. Freeze-dried polychaete meal could thus serve as a total substitution for fish- meal. The final decision however is dependent upon availability and price of the product. Table 4: Proximate composition of juvenile L. vannamei fed diets containing polychaete meal at increasing levels (per g wet weight). Dietary treatment Initial Fishmeal 30% Polychaete 60% Polychaete 100% Polychaete Dry matter, g 210 230 ± 6.6 233 ± 8.4 244 ± 9.1 232 ± 11.6 Ash, g 30.0 29.3 ± 1.8 27.1 ± 2.0 28.3 ± 0.7 28.0 ± 0.5 Protein, g 144 162 ± 3.7 162 ± 6.5 170 ± 8.2 161 ± 8.9 Energy, kJ 3.92 4.61 ± 0.1 4.81 ± 0.3 5.13 ± 0.2 4.84 ± 0.3 More InforMatIon: Ingrid Lupatsch, PhD, Email: Fig. 1: Protein and energy retention efficiency in shrimp fed the experimental feeds C M Y CM MY CY CMY K 12 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | May-June 2014 FEATURE Naturally ahead MYC OFIX Myco toxin Ri sk M a n a g e M ent Mycofix® More protective. Mycotoxins decrease performance and interfere with the health status of your animals. Mycofix® is the solution for mycotoxin risk management.
  5. 5. LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Assessing the potential of polychaete meal in shrimp feeds Prospects on dietary trace minerals – aquafeeds & aquaculture Volume 17 Issue 3 2014 - mAY | JuNe INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Use of a heat-stable protease in salmonid feeds – experiences from Canada and Chile Fish Farming Technology supplement Nets and cages Recirculating aquaculture systems This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE