SUPPLEMENTATION OF KRILL OIL IN THE FEEDING OF Litopenaeus vannamei CAN COUTERACT THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF HIGH SALINITY...
Rationale<br /><ul><li>In shrimp farms water salinity can vary from less than 1‰ to more than 50‰
Salinity fluctuates mainly as a response  to season, pond depth, water exchange rates, pumping site
Ideal salinities for the rearing of L. vannamei is around 20‰
Species can tolerate wide range of salinities, but above 40‰, osmoregulatory ability can be depreciated
High water salinity leads to increased feed intake, poor FCR and slow growth</li></ul>Influence of pumping site to riverin...
Review<br />Outside cell<br /> fatty acid<br /><ul><li>Liu et al. (2007) supplementing vitamin E (dietary tocopheryl aceta...
Hurtado et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate that growth of L. vannamei at high salinities was enhanced when fed on HUFA...
Hurtado et al. (2007) observed that a higher proportion of HUFA in gill membrane in shrimp fed the high-HUFA diet countera...
Objectives<br />To evaluate if supplementation of Krill oil improves the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei wh...
LABOMAR/UFC<br />Eusébio. BRAZIL<br />Pacoti River Estuary<br />Indoor tanks<br />Outdoor tanks<br />19/jan/2009<br />
Rearing System<br />INDOOR<br />50 tanks<br />Clear water<br />500-L volume 0.57 m2 area<br />XXXX shrimp/m2<br />
Experimental Design<br />Formulas and experimental design<br /><ul><li>Experimental diets:
One diet containing a combination of fish and soybean oil (diet FISH)
One diet with Krill and soybean oil (diet KRILL)
One diet with soybean oil alone (diet SOY)
Two diets containing low and high inclusion levels of Krill oil in combination with soybean oil (diets KRILL- and KRILL+, ...
Salinity conditions
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Krill Oil

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The effect of Krill oil in shrimp performance when subjected to high salinity culture

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Krill Oil

  1. 1. SUPPLEMENTATION OF KRILL OIL IN THE FEEDING OF Litopenaeus vannamei CAN COUTERACT THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF HIGH SALINITY<br />Alberto J.P. Nunes1, Sigve Nordrum, Otávio Serino Castro, Marcelo V.C. Sá<br />LABOMAR*. Brazil<br />1E-mail: albertojpn@uol.com.br<br />*Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará<br />WAS 2009 Meeting<br />Veracruz, Mexico<br />Shrimp Nutrition Special Session<br />September 26th, 2009<br />03:10 pm<br />
  2. 2. Rationale<br /><ul><li>In shrimp farms water salinity can vary from less than 1‰ to more than 50‰
  3. 3. Salinity fluctuates mainly as a response to season, pond depth, water exchange rates, pumping site
  4. 4. Ideal salinities for the rearing of L. vannamei is around 20‰
  5. 5. Species can tolerate wide range of salinities, but above 40‰, osmoregulatory ability can be depreciated
  6. 6. High water salinity leads to increased feed intake, poor FCR and slow growth</li></ul>Influence of pumping site to riverine water affects water sality<br />Grow-out pond in an hypersaline area with salt accumulated on the bottom<br />
  7. 7. Review<br />Outside cell<br /> fatty acid<br /><ul><li>Liu et al. (2007) supplementing vitamin E (dietary tocopheryl acetate) at 600 and 1,000 mg/kg of diet for L. vannamei experienced an increase in shrimp resistance to acute salinity changes
  8. 8. Hurtado et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate that growth of L. vannamei at high salinities was enhanced when fed on HUFA-enriched diets
  9. 9. Hurtado et al. (2007) observed that a higher proportion of HUFA in gill membrane in shrimp fed the high-HUFA diet counteracted the influence of salinity on water content in gills during a long-term salinity exposure</li></ul>Inside cell<br />The cell membrane is formed by lipid bi-layer. Phospholipids are the major lipid group within the membrane and contain a range of fatty acids including eicosapentanoic acid (EPA). <br />Source: AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway<br />
  10. 10. Objectives<br />To evaluate if supplementation of Krill oil improves the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei when reared under hypersaline water conditions<br />To determine optimum inclusion levels of Krill oil in diets for the Pacific white shrimp when exposed to high salinity rearing conditions<br />Krill oil (Qrill™, AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway) produced from the AntarcticKrill (Euphausia superba)<br />
  11. 11. LABOMAR/UFC<br />Eusébio. BRAZIL<br />Pacoti River Estuary<br />Indoor tanks<br />Outdoor tanks<br />19/jan/2009<br />
  12. 12. Rearing System<br />INDOOR<br />50 tanks<br />Clear water<br />500-L volume 0.57 m2 area<br />XXXX shrimp/m2<br />
  13. 13. Experimental Design<br />Formulas and experimental design<br /><ul><li>Experimental diets:
  14. 14. One diet containing a combination of fish and soybean oil (diet FISH)
  15. 15. One diet with Krill and soybean oil (diet KRILL)
  16. 16. One diet with soybean oil alone (diet SOY)
  17. 17. Two diets containing low and high inclusion levels of Krill oil in combination with soybean oil (diets KRILL- and KRILL+, respectively)
  18. 18. Salinity conditions
  19. 19. IDEAL (21 – 26‰) and HIGH (40 – 47‰) salinity conditions
  20. 20. KRILL- and KRILL+ tested under high water salinity alone</li></ul>*based on 80% of that required by Penaeus monodon (Glencross et al., 2002)<br />FISH<br /> FISH <br />KRILL<br />SOY<br />KRILL+<br />KRILL-<br />KRILL<br /> SOY <br />
  21. 21. Tank Distribution<br />FH36<br />FG31<br />FF26<br />FE21<br />FD16<br />FJ46<br />FI41<br />FC11<br />FB06<br />FA01<br />FH37<br />FG32<br />FF27<br />FE22<br />FD17<br />FJ47<br />FI42<br />FC12<br />FB07<br />FA02<br />FG33<br />FF28<br />FE23<br />FD18<br />FJ48<br />FI43<br />FH38<br />FC13<br />FB08<br />FA03<br />FG34<br />FF29<br />FE24<br />FH39<br />FD19<br />FJ49<br />FI44<br />FC14<br />FB09<br />FA04<br />FG35<br />FF30<br />FE25<br />FD20<br />FJ50<br />FI45<br />FH40<br />FC15<br />FB10<br />FA05<br />HIGH<br />water salinity (40 - 47‰)<br />IDEAL water salinity (20 - 26‰)<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />KRILL<br />-<br />KRILL+<br />Six replicate tanks were assigned for each diet, except FISH and KRILL which used a total of seven replicate tanks under IDEAL salinity conditions.<br />Allotment of feeds in rearing tanks followed a random block design <br />
  22. 22. Formulas (g/kg)<br />Protein Ingredients<br />Lipid sources<br />Fixed portion<br />
  23. 23. 1in g/kg of diet as wet basis.<br />2QRILL™ oil, Aker Biomarine ASA (Oslo, Norway).<br />3Cholesterol XG, Solvay Pharmaceuticals BV (Weesp, Netherlands). <br />4in % of total lipid content in the diet.<br />5sum of highly unsaturated fatty acids (DHA+EPA).<br />6sum of essential fatty acids (DHA+EPA+LOA+LNA).<br />
  24. 24. Study Set-up<br />NURSERY<br /><ul><li> PL12 reared in nursery tanks of 3,000 L at 2.4 PL/L for 48 days when they reached 0.65 ± 0.28 g (n = 152)</li></ul>PL Stocking<br />Header tank<br />20,000 L<br />Rearing in 3,000 L tanks<br />CONDITIONING PERIOD<br /><ul><li>140 shrimp/m2 (80 shrimp/tank) and raised for 22 days for a conditioning period to water salinity
  25. 25. IDEAL: from 25 ± 0.9‰ (3.4% CV) to 24 ± 0.4‰ (2.0% CV)
  26. 26. HIGH: from 36 ± 0.8‰ (2.2% CV) to 40 ± 0.4‰ (1.0% CV)</li></ul>Salt dilution<br />Harvest<br />Stocking and acclimation<br />
  27. 27. Data Collection<br />After 22 days of acclimation started on experimental diets at 2.79 ± 0.60 g<br />Density reduced to 70 shrimp/m2 or 40 shrimp/tank<br />Fed twice daily in feeding trays at 0730 and 1600 h on a consumption basis<br />Daily water analysis<br /><ul><li>pH, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen</li></ul>22-24 day interval – 10 shrimp/tank were weighed<br />After 64 days shrimp were counted and individually weighed<br />weekly growth rate (g/week)<br />Final body weight (g)<br />final survival (%)<br />yield (g/m2)<br />food conversion ratio (FCR) <br />Feeding protocol used to adjust the amount of feed delivered based estimated consumption from trays<br />
  28. 28. Water Quality<br />8.6<br />50<br />IDEAL water salinity<br />tanks<br />8.4<br />Salinity (‰)<br />45<br />8.2<br />Temperature (<br />ƒ<br />C)<br />pH<br /><ul><li>Trend towards increasing salinity, from 22‰ to 25‰ under IDEAL salinity tanks and from 41‰ to 45‰ under HIGH salinity tanks
  29. 29. No differences between treatments for pH, salinity and temperature
  30. 30. Significant differences between HIGH and IDEAL for water salinity</li></ul>8.0<br />40<br />7.8<br />Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)<br />7.6<br />35<br />pH<br />7.4<br />30<br />7.2<br />7.0<br />25<br />6.8<br />6.6<br />20<br />Days of Rearing<br />8.6<br />50<br />HIGH water salinity<br />tanks<br />8.4<br />45<br />8.2<br />8.0<br />40<br />Salinity (‰)<br />7.8<br />Temperature (<br />ƒ<br />C)<br />pH<br />7.6<br />35<br />pH<br />Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)<br />7.4<br />30<br />7.2<br />7.0<br />25<br />6.8<br />6.6<br />20<br />1<br />3<br />6<br />8<br />11<br />14<br />16<br />18<br />21<br />23<br />27<br />29<br />31<br />34<br />36<br />39<br />42<br />44<br />46<br />50<br />52<br />55<br />57<br />60<br />63<br />Days of Rearing<br />
  31. 31. Final Shrimp Survival (%)<br />P = 0.896<br />P = 0.720<br />100.0%<br />95.0%<br />95.0%<br />96.3%<br />94.2%<br />93.8%<br />92.5%<br />91.8%<br />90.0%<br />90.0%<br />80.0%<br />70.0%<br />60.0%<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />KRILL -<br />KRILL+<br />IDEAL<br />water salinity<br />HIGH<br />water salinity<br />Chronic exposure to high salinity did not deteriorate shrimp survival<br />Increasing n-3 HUFA provided no additional benefit to shrimp survival<br />
  32. 32. Shrimp Yield (g/m2)<br />Yield for KRILL12-13% higher compared to FISH, SOY and KRILL-<br />650<br />P = 0.550<br />P = 0.370<br />598<br />600<br />579<br />569<br />555<br />550<br />536<br />533<br />531<br />529<br />500<br />450<br />400<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />KRILL-<br />KRILL+<br />IDEAL<br />water salinity<br />HIGH<br />water salinity<br />Final shrimp yield did not vary significantly among different diets regardless of the salinity concentration<br />
  33. 33. Shrimp Final Body Weight (g)<br />at 1.45% KRILL- could not counterbalance the effects of high salinity<br />KRILLable to promote a significantly higher shrimp growth compared to FISH and SOY, regardless of salinity<br />No growth improvements by further increase in KRILL+ at 5.50%<br />12.50<br />12.03<br />11.91<br />P<br />&lt; 0.0001<br />12.00<br />11.79<br />c<br />11.52<br />B<br />B <br />11.50<br />11.12<br />10.96<br />b<br />10.88<br />10.86<br />11.00<br />a<br />A<br />A<br />A<br />10.50<br />P<br />&lt; 0.0001<br />10.00<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />FISH<br />SOY<br />KRILL<br />KRILL-<br />KRILL+<br />HIGH<br />water salinity<br />IDEAL<br />water salinity<br />Factorial analyses: <br />both water salinity and diet type had a significant effect on shrimp body weight <br />
  34. 34. Weekly Growth Rate (%)<br />10.0<br />8.33%<br />WEIGHT GAIN DEPRESSION<br />AFTER SALINITY STRESS <br />(%)<br />8.0<br />2<br />Y = 1.451X<br />-<br />24.84X + 109.0<br />R² = 1.000<br />6.0<br />3.22%<br />4.0<br />2.94%<br />2.0<br />0.0<br />SOY<br />FISH<br />KRILL<br />As water salinity increased from IDEAL to HIGH there was a growth depression, less significant with animals fed the KRILL diet<br />
  35. 35. Conclusions<br />SALINITY<br />The higher the salinity, the more important was n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) to boost shrimp growth<br />Under 21 – 26‰ shrimp did not appear to require diets with high n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) levels as they performed well when fed a diet containing only a vegetable oil source (i.e., soybean oil)<br />SOURCES<br />KRILL oil delivered an increased shrimp growth under both regular (21 – 26‰) and hypersaline (40 – 47‰) rearing conditions compared to the other lipid sources tested<br />LEVELS<br />Under persistent hypersaline conditions, daily exposure to KRILL oil appeared to be more important than an increased inclusion level <br />Under hypersaline water, n-3 HUFA, particularly DHA had the greatest impact on shrimp growth. Best final body weight was achieved when projected DHA achieved 1.6% of total lipid content<br />No further enhancement in growth was observed when DHA levels exceeded this threshold for a salinity of 44 ± 2.0‰.<br />

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