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Gender ed Gender ed Presentation Transcript

  • Gender andEducationThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
  • IndicatorsThis presentation includes analysis ofgender disparities in: Net Enrollment Rates (NER) for primary and secondary Net Attendance Rates (NAR) for primary and secondary Out of School Children (OOS) Repetition Rates Primary/Secondary Completion Rates Learning Outcomes Gross Enrollment/Attendance Rates (GER/GAR) fortertiary Youth and Adult Literacy Rates
  • Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)GER Gross Enrollment RateNER Net Enrollment RateOOS Out of SchoolNAR Net Attendance RateGAR Gross Attendance RatioGPI Gender Parity Index (female value/male value)
  • Pre-PrimaryEducation
  • Do gender disparities exist in pre-primary enrollment rates? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1 indicatesa bias toward males. Avalue above 1 indicates abias toward females. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .98in 2000 to perfect genderparity (1.0) in 2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity (+/-0.02) in 2010. Only MNAlags behind. 4 of 6 regions have aslight female bias.Gender parity in pre-primary enrolments (1.0) hasbeen achieved globally and in most regions.0.980.990.99 0.990.991.000.750.800.850.900.951.001.052000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.Pre-PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
  • PrimaryEducation
  • Are more females out-of-school than males? In 1999, there werealmost 62 millionfemales out-of-schoolcompared to 45.5million males. 58% ofthe world’s out-of-school children werefemale. In 2010, around 32million girls were out ofschool compared to28.6 million boys.52.5% of out-of-schoolchildren were female. The gap between maleand female totalsdecreased from 16.5million to 3.6 millionbetween 1999 and2010.More Females are Out of Primary School than Males0204060801001201999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012Males Out-of-School Females Out-of-School
  • Where are more females out-of-school? Over half of theworld’s out of schoolgirls are in SSA, andjust under 1/4 are inSouth Asia. South Asia hasdecreased its totalnumber of femalesout-of-school by 17.7million since 1999.The region’s totaldropped from 25million to 7 million. SSA has alsodecreased its totalfrom 24.3 million in1999 to 17.5 million in2010.3 out of every 4 Out-of-School Girls arein either Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia051015202530354045505560651999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary.Female(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012LAC ECA MNA EAP SAS SSA
  • Which countries have the mostfemales out-of-school? Around half of the world’sout-of-school females livein these 10 countries. 36% of the world’s out-of-school females live in theTop 4 countries. Nigeria, Pakistan, andIndia all have more our-of-school females that thesum of all females out-of-school in LAC and ECA. Half of the countries arein SSA and three are inSouth Asia.10 Countries with the Most FemaleOut-of School Children(2008-2011)1 Nigeria 5,487,9012 Pakistan 3,241,2033 India 1,407,4954 Ethiopia 1,367,1415 Cote dIvoire 663,8096 Philippines 661,5517 Bangladesh 591,3258 Niger 568,8849 Yemen, Rep. 567,70210 Burkina Faso 530,731Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October, 2012;Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Orange is2008;Blue is 2009; Blue is 2010; Black is 2011; Data were not available for61 of 213 countries.
  • Are there gender, income, or locationdisparities in the % of children OOS? In all regions, more lowincome students areOOS than high incomestudents. SAS has thelargest income disparityat 29 percentage pointsdifference between thetop and bottom quintiles.SSA follows closelybehind with 24 points. A higher % of boys areOOS in EAP, ECA, andLAC, but a higher % ofgirls are OOS in SASand SSA. In all regions except forECA, a higher % of ruralstudents are OOS. Thisdisparity is highest inSSA at 15 percentagepoints.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inpercentages of OOS children across regions.-30-28-26-24-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-202EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinthe%ofChildrenOut-of-School(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • Which regions have reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1 indicatesa bias toward males. Avalue above 1 indicates abias toward females. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .93in 1999 to .98 in 2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity (+/-0.03). Only MNA andSSA lag behind. EAP, ECA, and LAC haveachieved gender parity inprimary (+/- 0.02).All regions except MNA and SSA are within 0.03 ofgender parity in primary enrollments.0.930.930.94 0.940.960.970.970.97 0.970.980.980.800.820.840.860.880.900.920.940.960.981.001.021999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forAdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
  • 0.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.15GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September, 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Have most countries reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Half of countries withdata have alreadyachieved gender parity(+/- .02). 78% of countries withdata are within 0.05 ofgender parity. Many more countrieshave a bias towardmales in primaryenrolments (GPI<1). Afghanistan has thelargest male bias at .69followed by CentralAfrican Rep. and Chadat .73. San Marino has thehighest female bias at1.134.78% of countries are within 0.05 of gender parity inprimary enrollments.FemaleBiasMale Bias
  • Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in primary enrolment rates? The male primarygross enrolment ratein these countries ismuch higher than thefemale grossenrolment rate. 7 of 10 countries arein SSA. 2 are inSouth Asia and 1 isin MNA. Of the 20 countrieswith the lowest GPIs(GPI<0.9),14 are inSSA, 2 are in SAS, 2are in EAP (Togo andPNG), and 1 is inLAC (DominicanRepublic).10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Primary Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Afghanistan 0.6942 Central African Republic 0.7253 Chad 0.7294 Angola 0.8135 Yemen, Rep. 0.8176 Pakistan 0.8187 Cote dIvoire 0.8338 Niger 0.8379 Guinea 0.83810 Eritrea 0.838Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012;Notes: Data is GPI for Primary Gross Enrolment Rate; Black figures are 2011 data;Blue=2010; Data were not available for 71 of 214 countries.
  • Which countries have decreasedgender disparity in primary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.14 to0.25 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1)between 2000/2001and the most recentdata year. 6 of the 10 countriesare in SSA; 2 are inMNA and 2 in SouthAsia. Senegal now hashigher femaleenrollment rates thanmale enrollment rates(1.06). Burundi and Indiahave reached genderparity.10 Countries with the Most ImprovementToward Gender Parity in PrimaryEnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000 or2001GPIMostcurrentGPI%Improved1 Sierra Leone 0.25 0.67 0.93 37.532 Ethiopia 0.22 0.69 0.91 32.733 Burkina Faso 0.20 0.73 0.93 27.504 Benin 0.20 0.67 0.87 29.665 Yemen, Rep. 0.19 0.63 0.82 30.556 Burundi 0.19 0.80 0.99 23.647 Senegal 0.17 0.89 1.06 19.318 India 0.15 0.85 1.00 17.619 Pakistan 0.15 0.67 0.82 21.7910 Djibouti 0.14 0.76 0.90 18.84Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Sept. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI is the most recent data point for 2008-2011;Data were not available for 54 of 213 countries.
  • Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in primary attendance rates? EAP, ECA, LAC, andMNA do not have largedisparities in primary netattendance rates (NAR)betweengenders, rural/urbanlocations, or top/bottomincome quintiles. The largest disparities inmost regions areassociated with income.In SSA and SAS, thereis a 20 percentage pointdifference between thetop/bottom incomequintiles. Rural students in SSAalso have NARs that are12 percentage pointslower than urbanstudents.2Gender, income and location disparities are smallin all regions except except SAS and SSA.-202468101214161820EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinNetAttendanceRate.Primary(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • Do females repeat more thanmales in primary schools? Globally, there is lessthan half a percentagepoint differencebetween male/femalerepetition rates. Malesrepeat slightly morethan females. Males also repeatmore than females inall regions except forECA. The greatest genderdisparity is in MNA at2.5 percentage points. In SSA, there is almostno difference inrepetition ratesbetween males andfemales.Males repeat more than females in all regionsexcept ECA.012345678910EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPercentageofrepeatersinprimary.AllgradesMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: SAS data is 2009; All other data is for 2011.
  • Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? Globally, more malesare completing primaryschool than females.The difference betweenmale/female PCRs hasshrunk from 6percentage points in1999 to 1.8 in 2011. In most regions, moremales complete primarythan females, but inLAC and EAP, thereverse is true. EAPs female PCR was2.4 percentage pointshigher than the malePCR. LAC’s was 0.7percentage pointshigher for females.(continued on next slide)Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
  • Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? (continued) SSA has the largestgender disparity inPCRs with 74% of boyscompleting vs. 67% ofgirls in 2011. MNA also has a largegender disparity at 6percentage pointsdifference between thegenders. SAS had a large genderdisparity in 1999 (15percentage points) butdecreased thedifference to 2.7percentage points in2010.Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
  • Primary Completion Rate. Female(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • Gender Parity Index for PrimaryCompletion Rate(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.GenderParityFemaleBiasMaleBias
  • Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in primary completion rates? Gender disparities existin all regions inPCRs, but they aresurpassed by incomedisparities in all regionsexcept for ECA. The greatest disparitiesexist in SSA, wherethere is a 55 percentagepoint difference betweenthe PCRs of top andbottom quintile students.This compares to a 33point difference betweenurban and rural, and 9point between genders. In EAP and ECA, morerural students completeprimary school thanurban students.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inprimary completion rates in all regions except ECA.-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinPrimaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  •  Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius had thehighest reading scores in2007. Mauritius and Tanzaniaboth improved theirscores, but Seychelles’score was lower than in2000. Some countries havelarge disparities betweengenders, but in thesecases, females havehigher scores thanmales(Seychelles, Mauritiusand Botswana). Malawi and Zambia havehad the lowest scoresover time.Mean reading scores of 6th grade students varygreatly between Anglophone African countries.How do reading levels vary betweenAfrican countries?420440460480500520540560580600620Meanperformanceonthereadingscale(2000&2007)2000 Total Male 2007 Female 2007 Total 2007Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) in EdStats, August 2011; Note: Zimbabwe 2000 is 1995 figure.
  •  ElSalvador, Nicaragua, CostaRica, Peru, Guatemala,and Colombia arewithin 5 percentagepoints of gender parity.Female scores arehigher than male scoresin these countries. Uruguay has the largestdifference betweenmale/female readingscores with a 19.6percentage point malebias. Panama (15.9), Brazil(15.7), Cuba (15.2), andthe Dominican Rep.(15.1) also have large Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality ofEducation (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011Have LAC countries reached genderparity in reading levels?Difference between Male/Female Mean Scores onthe 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006)
  • SecondaryEducation
  • 0.920.940.950.96 0.96 0.960.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.102000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forNetEnrolmentRate.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012; No dataavailable for SSA and MNA for 2010. SSA 2008 data is from 2007.WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAWhich regions have reached genderparity in secondary enrollments? Globally, the gender parityindex (GPI) for secondarynet enrollment rate (NER)has been increasing from0.92 in 2000 to 0.96 in2010. ECA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity (1.0). LAC has consistently hadhigher female NERs. EAP has reversed from amale bias (0.96) in 2000 toa female bias (1.06) in2010. SAS has greatlydecreased genderdisparity over time. SSA has maintained amale bias 0.80 since 2000.Gender disparities in secondary enrollments varygreatly across regions.Female BiasMale Bias
  • 0.400.500.600.700.800.901.001.101.201.301.40GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012:Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Does gender parity exist in secondaryenrollments in most countries? Just over half (52%) ofcountries with data arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in secondaryenrollments. Unlike primaryenrollments, morecountries have a femalebias in secondaryenrolments. 85countries have GPIshigher than 1 while 71countries have GPIsless than 1. 6 countries haveperfect gender parity(1.0):Slovenia, Mauritius, Swaziland, Japan, Indonesia, and Cyprus.More countries have higher female secondary GERsthan male secondary GERs.Female BiasMale Bias
  • Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in secondary enrolments? In 9 of 10countries, themale GER ismuch higher thanthe female GER.In Lesotho – thefemale GER ishigher than themale rate. 8 of 10 countriesare in SSA. 1 is inSouth Asia and 1is in MNA. Of the 20countries with thegreatest genderdisparity, 5 have afemale bias. 14 of the top 20are in SSA.10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Secondary Enrolments(2008-2011)GPIAbsolute valuefrom 11 Chad 0.42 0.582 Afghanistan 0.51 0.493 Central African Republic 0.55 0.454 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.58 0.425 Guinea 0.59 0.416 Lesotho 1.38 0.387 Yemen, Rep. 0.62 0.388 Niger 0.66 0.349 Angola 0.69 0.3110 Mali 0.71 0.29Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012; Notes: Data are 2010GPIs for Secondary Gross Enrolment Rates except Guinea (2009), CAR (2011), and Mali(2011); Data were not available for 52 of 213 countries.
  • Which countries have decreased genderdisparity in secondary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.19 to0.34 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1) overtime. Sweden and St. Luciaimproved from a largefemale bias (1.26)toward gender parity. The other countrieshave improved from amale bias (0.40 to0.85) toward genderparity. 3 of 10 countries arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in the mostrecent year.10 Countries with the MostImprovement Toward GenderParity in Secondary EnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000/2001GPIMost currentGPI1 Cambodia 0.34 0.57 0.902 Sweden 0.27 1.26 0.993 St. Lucia 0.27 1.26 0.994 Mozambique 0.23 0.64 0.875 Senegal 0.21 0.66 0.886 Yemen, Rep. 0.21 0.41 0.627 India 0.20 0.72 0.928 Bhutan 0.19 0.85 1.049 Guinea 0.19 0.40 0.5910 Turkey 0.19 0.73 0.91Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI data for most countries is from 2010;Guinea and Turkey are 2009; Mozambique data is 2011.
  • Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in secondary attendance rates? Large gender disparitiesin secondary attendancerates do not exist in anyregion except SAS. InLAC, ECA, andMNA, slightly morefemales attendsecondary than males. Rural/urban locationdisparities exist in mostregions. In LAC andSSA, location disparitiesare 20/23 percentagepoints. The largest disparities inall regions areassociated with income:There is a 35+percentage pointdifference between thetop/bottom quintiles inLAC, SAS, and SSA.2The largest disparities in net secondaryattendance rates are associated with income.-50510152025303540EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinNetAttendanceRate.Secondary(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in secondary completion rates? Low income is thegreatest source ofdisparity in secondarycompletion rates in allregions. The disparity isgreatest in SAS (60percentage points), LAC(44), and SSA (40). Rural residence is asource of disparity inSAS (29 percentagepoint disparity), LAC(25), and SSA (22). A slightly higherpercentage of femalescomplete secondary inECA and LAC, but theopposite is true in otherregions.2Income is the greatest source of disparity insecondary completion rates in all regions.-10-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinSecondaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • TertiaryEducation
  • Which regions have reached genderparity in tertiary enrollments? In 2000, the world genderparity index (GPI) fortertiary enrollments was1.0 – perfect genderparity. Since then, femaleGERs have been higherthan male GERs, and theGPI has been movingabove 1.0. MNA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity in 2010. LAC andECA have consistentlyhad higher femaleGERs, and EAP hasreversed from a malebias to a female bias. SAS and SSA havemaintained a strong malebias in tertiaryenrolments over time.Gender disparities in tertiary enrolment rates varygreatly across regions.1.001.021.041.06 1.07 1.080.600.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.151.201.251.302000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRate.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
  • Does gender parity exist in tertiaryenrollments in most countries? Only 9 countries arewithin +/-0.05 ofgender parity intertiary enrollments. 63% of countrieshave a female bias intertiary enrolmentsvs. 37% with highermale enrolment rates. One country –Vietnam – has perfectgender parity (1.0). In 10 countries, thefemale GER morethan doubles themale GER. Thesecountries are islandnations in LAC andQatar (see nextslide).The majority of countries have higher femaleenrolment rates than male enrolment rates in tertiaryeducation.0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.505.005.50GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)FemaleBiasMale Bias
  • Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in tertiary enrolments?10 Countries with the Largest Male Biasin Tertiary Enrolments(2008-2011)1 Chad 0.172 Congo, Rep. 0.213 Afghanistan 0.244 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.315 Central African Republic 0.326 Eritrea 0.337 Guinea 0.338 Ethiopia 0.369 Benin 0.3810 Niger 0.38Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012; Notes:Maroon=2011; Black = 2010; Purple = 2009; Blue = 2008; Data were notavailable for 73 of 213 countries.10 Countries with the Largest FemaleBias in Tertiary Enrolments(2008-2011)1 Qatar 5.382 Dominica 3.353 Antigua and Barbuda 2.584 St. Lucia 2.575 Guyana 2.526 Barbados 2.387 Jamaica 2.288 Cayman Islands 2.249 Bermuda 2.1210 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.10Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012;Notes: Black = 2010; Blue = 2008; Data were not available for 73 of213 countries.
  • Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in post-secondary attendance ratios? Levels of genderdisparity in post-secondary attendanceare much lower thanlevels of location andincome disparity. Moregirls than boys attendpost-secondary schoolsin EAP, ECA, and LAC. Rural areas havebetween 5 (SSA) and 15(LAC) percent lowerattendance ratios thanurban areas. Income is the largestsource of disparityacross regions. Incomedisparities range from 8percentage points inSSA to 34 in LAC.2Income is the largest source of disparity in post-secondary gross attendance ratios in all regions.-505101520253035EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinGrossAttendanceRatio.Post-Sec.(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • YouthLiteracy
  • Is there disparity betweengenders in youth literacy rates? Globally, there is still agender gap in youthliteracy rates, though thegap has been shrinkingover time. There was a 8.6%difference between maleand female youth literacyrates during 1985-1994. The gender gap shrunkby 41.5% to 5.0% during2005-2010. 92% ofmales were literatecompared to 87% offemales.Fewer females emerge from educationsystems with basic literacy skills than males.87.690.492.279.083.987.17075808590951985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010YouthLiteracyRate(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Male Female
  • Are gender disparities in youthliteracy rates decreasing? Gender disparitiesbetween male andfemale youth literacyrates have decreased inall regions. EAP, ECA, and LAChave achieved almostperfect gender parity(1.0), whileMNA, SAS, and SSAlag behind. SAS and MNA haveimproved greatly overtime: They moved 0.17and 0.14 closer togender parity. Progress in SSA hasbeen slower with only0.09 improvement.Gender disparities in youth literacy rates havedecreased over time in all regions.0.900.930.950.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forYouthLiteracyRateSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Gender Parity Index for YouthLiteracy Rate(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.GenderParityMaleBiasMaleBiasMaleBias
  • Which countries have thelowest female literacy rates? The 20 lowest femaleyouth literacy rateswere all found in Sub-Saharan Africancountries except forPakistan. Only 1/3 of femaleyouth are literate inBurkina Faso and Mali. Less than half offemale youth areliterate in the top 5countries.10 Countries with the LowestFemale Youth Literacy Rates(2006-2010)1 Burkina Faso 33.12 Mali 33.93 Chad 40.64 Benin 44.65 Ethiopia 47.06 Sierra Leone 50.17 Senegal 56.28 Guinea 57.09 Central African Republic 58.210 Pakistan 61.5Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013; Note:Data points are the most recent year available: Green = 2009; Blue =2007; Black = 2010; Data were not available for 71 countries.
  • Which countries have increased femaleyouth literacy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their femaleyouth literacy rates by14 to 23 percentagepoints over time. 8 of 10 countries arein SSA and 2 are inSAS. Despite greatimprovement, only 4of 10 countries havefemale youth literacyrates higher than75%. Haiti’s female youthliteracy rate worsenedover the period by 10percentage points.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inFemale Youth Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Guinea 22.9 34.1 57.0 67.22 Gambia, The 20.3 41.4 61.7 49.13 Guinea-Bissau 19.4 45.9 65.3 42.34 Nepal 18.2 60.1 78.4 30.35 Bangladesh 18.2 60.3 78.5 30.36 Chad 17.3 23.2 40.6 74.67 Eritrea 17.2 69.5 86.7 24.78 Senegal 15.2 41.0 56.2 37.29 Mozambique 15.0 50.0 65.1 30.010Ghana 14.4 65.5 79.9 22.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 92 of 213 countries.
  • Youth Literacy Rate. Female(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • AdultLiteracy
  • Is there disparity betweengenders in adult literacy rates? Globally, there is still agender gap in adultliteracy rates, though thegap has been shrinkingover time. There was a 12.6%difference between male(82%) and female(69.4%) adult literacyrates during 1985-1994. The gender gap shrunkby 29% to 8.9% during2005-2010. 88.6% ofmales were literatecompared to 79.7% offemales.Fewer adult females have basic literacyskills, but the gender gap has decreased overtime.82.086.988.669.476.979.701020304050607080901001985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010AdultLiteracyRate(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Mar. 2013Male Female
  • Have gender disparities in adultliteracy rates decreased over time? Gender disparities inadult literacy rates havedecreased over time inall regions. ECA and LAC haveachieved gender paritywith GPIs at 0.98. MNA, SAS, and EAPhave made the mostprogress by moving0.16, 0.13, and 0.13closer to 1.0 (genderparity) respectively. Progress in SSA hasbeen slower with only0.09 improvement. SAS, SSA, and MNA arefurthest from genderparity in adult literacy.All regions are moving closer to gender parityin adult literacy rates.0.85 0.88 0.900.500.550.600.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051985-1994 1995-2004 2005-2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forAdultLiteracyRateSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Which countries have thelowest female literacy rates? Less than one quarterof females are literatein the top 3 countries –Mali, BurkinaFaso, and Chad. Lessthan one third offemales are literate inthe top 7 countries. All the countries on thelist are in SSA exceptPakistan. Of the 144 countrieswith data, 19 countrieshave female adultliteracy rates less than50% and 70 countrieshave rates higher than90%.10 Countries with the LowestFemale Adult Literacy Rates(2006-2010)1 Mali 20.32 Burkina Faso 21.63 Chad 24.24 Ethiopia 28.95 Guinea 30.06 Benin 30.37 Sierra Leone 31.48 Senegal 38.79 Pakistan 40.310 Gambia, The 40.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 71 countries. Data are for the most recentavailable year. Blue = 2007; Green = 2009; Black = 2010.
  • Which countries have increased femaleadult literacy rates the most over time? These countries haveincreased their femaleadult literacy rates by11 to 23 percentagepoints over time. Six of the countries arein SSA; 2 are in SAS. Despite greatimprovement, morethan 1/3 of women areilliterate in all of thesecountries except SaudiArabia. Haiti’s rate worsenedby 10.3 percentagepoints over time.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inFemale Adult Literacy RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2004Rate2006-2010Rate%Improved1 Timor-Leste 23.0 30.0 53.0 76.52 Eritrea 17.3 40.2 57.5 43.13 Gambia, The 15.4 25.1 40.4 61.44 Nepal 13.5 34.9 48.3 38.65 Guinea-Bissau 13.1 27.5 40.6 47.76 Saudi Arabia 12.1 69.3 81.3 17.47 Guinea 11.8 18.2 30.0 64.78 Ghana 11.4 49.8 61.2 22.99 Bangladesh 11.4 40.8 52.2 27.910Chad 11.4 12.8 24.2 89.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;Data were not available for 90 of 213 countries.
  • Adult Literacy Rate. Female(2006-2010)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release thatincluded 2010 data for most indicators/countries. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in theEdStats Query.2) Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys,and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reportswere generated through ADePT Edu (2011)3) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator ClusterSurveys in the World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE)4) Learning Outcome Data from the EdStats Query: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECESERCE)Data Sources
  • The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Gender Literacy Equity