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Gender

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IL302

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Gender

  1. 1. Gender and Development
  2. 2. Introduction Gender is a development issue. Different concepts: • women in development (WID) • women and development (WAD) • gender and development (GAD) • the efficiency approach • the empowerment approach • gender and the environment (GED) • mainstreaming gender equality
  3. 3. Gender Issues  Gender and education  Resources  Work and women  Maternal mortality ratio  Declining sex ratio  Gendered patterns of migration  Gender and violence
  4. 4. Gender is a social construct  In contrast to sex, which refers to biological differences between males and females, gender is a social or cultural construct of the differences between women and men.  People are born female or male, but they acquire a gender identity that shapes socially acceptable activities for women and men, their relations, and their relative power.
  5. 5. Gender and education  Gender differences in education exist in many parts of the world  Education and development  Reduction in child mortality  Improvement in nutrition  Decrease in fertility rates
  6. 6. Educating Women Reduces National Infant Mortality Infant mortality (deaths per 1,000 births) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Sub-Saharan Africa 50 70 90 110 Secondary education (females per 100 males) South Asia Middle East & North Africa Latin America & Caribbean East Asia OECD
  7. 7. Educated Women Have Healthier Children 250 200 150 100 50 0 Africa Latin America & Caribbean Asia 0 Yrs. 4-6 Yrs. 7+ Yrs. Under 5 mortality per 1,000 Years of education of mother (Average of household survey results)
  8. 8. IInnddiiaa KKeennyyaa Calculation of Net Social Benefits to Girls’ Education for Representative Countries Cost of one additional year of primary schooling for 1,000 women $32,000 $58,000 Benefits of an additional year of schooling: CChhiilldd mmoorrttaalliittyy rreedduucceedd bbyy:: 7.5% 7.5% Alternative cost per child death $750 $750 Total value of averted deaths $32,000 $36,000 BBiirrtthhss aavveerrtteedd: Percentage reduction in total fertility rate 7.5% 7.5% Alternative cost per birth averted $250 $300 Value of averted births $75,000 $98,000 MMaatteerrnnaall mmoorrttaalliittyy:: Maternal deaths averted 2 2 Alternative cost per averted maternal death $1,500 $1,500 Value of averted maternal deaths 2,300 2,600 Discounted social benefits (15 years, 5%) $52,000 $66,000
  9. 9. Resources  Women have poor command over land, information and financial resources.  In South-east Asia female resource possession is low and female autonomy is very low.  In developing countries women rarely possess land  Female headed households  Female headed enterprises
  10. 10. Declining sex-ratio  There are at least 60 to 100 million missing women.  Female infanticide and sex-selective foeticide  Declining child sex-ratios  Relation of declining sex-ratios to the population policies and son preference  Example
  11. 11. Where is there anti-girl discrimination and a resulting shortage of girls?  East Asia: China, Taiwan, South Korea  South Asia: India, Nepal, Pakistan  Not in most Muslim countries of Arab Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Asia, or Central Asia.  Not in most of Latin America, Africa, Middle East, Less Developed, or Least Developed Countries.  Not in Europe, North America, Russia.  Only certain cultures have such strong traditional anti-daughter bias that is now exacerbated by declining and low fertility, leading to sex-selective abortion and/or excess mortality of daughters.
  12. 12. Maternal Mortality Ratio(MMR)  MMR measures the number of deaths to women per 100,000 lives births due to pregnancy-related complications,  400 per 100,000 live births globally in 2000.  By region, it was highest in Africa (830), followed by Asia - excluding Japan (330), Oceania - excluding Australia and New Zealand (240), Latin America and the Caribbean (190) and the developed countries (20).  Worldwide, 13 developing countries accounted for 70 per cent of all maternal deaths.
  13. 13. Work and Women  Women work considerably longer hours than men in many countries.  Division of labor (mostly household job at the expense of education, leisure and health)  Common in the absence of adequate infrastructure for water, energy and transport
  14. 14. Participation  Women still earn less than men in the labor market  On average in developed countries, women in the wage sector earn 77% of what men earn; in developing countries 73%  In politics, women continue to be vastly unrepresentative
  15. 15. Equality index
  16. 16. Gender inequalities are costly for development  Societies that discriminate on the basis of gender pay a significant price- in more poverty, slower economic growth, weaker governance and in lower quality of life.  Gender inequalities in basic rights, education, access to productive resources, participation in public life- all have detrimental impacts on development
  17. 17. Infant and child mortality  Impact of gender gap in education on infant and child mortality can be observed in countries where girls are only half likely to go to school as boys have 21 more infant deaths per 1,000 live births than countries with no gender gap  Sub-Saharan Africa (under five mortality would have been 25 percent lower)
  18. 18. Nutritional status  Mothers education, health and income are key determinants of child nutrition in developing countries  Study that observed child malnutrition pattern from 63 countries between 1970 and 1995  In Brazil, the positive impact on children’s nutritional indicators of additional income in mothers’ hands is 4-8 times larger than the impact of additional income in fathers’ hands.
  19. 19. Economic growth and gender equality  Income growth promotes gender equality in the long run by increasing women’s education, investment in girls human development and for women to participate in the labor force.  Ghana, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Tanzania, Turkey and Vietnam  More investment in rural infrastructure like water, transportation and fuel eases the burden of females  Nepal and Pakistan- water and energy infrastructure  Morocco- pipes water increases girls school attendance
  20. 20. Adolescent child bearing More than 15 million girls aged 15 to 19 give birth each year. Motherhood at a very young age entails complications during pregnancy and delivery and a risk of maternal death that is much greater than average. The children of young mothers have higher levels of morbidity and mortality. Early child-bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world.
  21. 21. Gender and violence  Sexual and gender-based violence, including physical and psychological abuse, trafficking in women and girls, and other forms of abuse and sexual exploitation place girls and women at high risk of physical and mental trauma, disease and unwanted pregnancy. Such situations often deter women from using health and other services.
  22. 22. Gender and development All societies have established a clear-cut division of labor by sex, although what is considered a male or female task varies cross-culturally, implying that there is no natural and fixed gender division of labor. Second, research has shown that, in order to comprehend gender roles in production, we also need to understand gender roles within the household. The third fundamental finding is that economic development has been shown to have a differential impact on men and women and the impact on women has both positive and negative results. .
  23. 23. Three-part strategy  Reforming institutions  Implementing policies for sustained economic growth and development  Taking active measures to improve women’s command of resources and political voice
  24. 24. Conclusion  After three decades of Women in Development and Gender and Development policies the work of redressing gender inequalities has only just begun…  Investing in women will not put an end to poverty but it will make a critical contribution to improving household well-being.  Furthermore, it will help to create the basis for future generations to make better use of both resource and opportunities

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