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Current state of migration in the Mediterranean - Nov 2016 by OECD


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The OECD presents seven migration challenges and opportunities:
1. Continuing emigration from MENA to OECD countries
2. Existence of large diasporas in the OECD
3. Return migration to MENA countries
4. International students
5. Remittances
6. Transit migration in MENA countries
7. Emerging permanent immigration to MENA countries

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Current state of migration in the Mediterranean - Nov 2016 by OECD

  1. 1. Current State of Migration in Mediterranean Countries: Challenges and opportunities for migration governance Strengthening Migration Governance: The role of Inter-institutional Coordination and evidence-based policy making / 27-28 October 2016 – Tunis, Tunisia By: Friedrich Poeschel, International Migration Division Funded by the European Union République Tunisienne Ministère des Affaires Etrangères
  2. 2. 1. Continuing emigration from MENA to OECD countries 2. Existence of large diasporas in the OECD 3. Return migration to MENA countries 4. International students 5. Remittances 6. Transit migration in MENA countries 7. Emerging permanent immigration to MENA countries Outline of the presentation: seven challenges and opportunities Drawing on analyses of emigration
  3. 3. Flows from Syria to the OECD higher than from Morocco, but legal migration is stable 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Syria Lebanon Iraq Tunisia Egypt Algeria Iran Morocco Main migration flows from MENA countries to OECD countries Source: OECD International Migration Database • Total level of legal migration flows from MENA countries is stable at 300k per year, corresponding to 5% of total flows to OECD in 2014. • Morocco is main origin: 27% of legal migration flows from MENA to OECD in 2014; Iraq and Algeria account for 14% each. • Main destinations of legal flows: France (21%), USA (18%) and Germany (14%).
  4. 4. • In Italy, most net migration flows fell in the wake of the economic crisis. • In Spain, net flows from Morocco and Algeria even became negative. Net migration flows to Italy and Spain have tended to fall Net migration flows from selected MENA countries to Italy and Spain Source: OECD International Migration Database 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Morocco Egypt Tunisia Algeria -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Morocco Egypt Tunisia Algeria Italy Spain
  5. 5. Intentions to emigrate remain high in the population of MENA countries Emigration intentions in the MENA countries, 2007-2013 Source: Gallup World Poll • Emigration intentions are particularly high among those aged 15-24 (up to 40-45% in Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) • Also higher for highly-educated persons: on average 27%, with 22-25% in Algeria and Egypt and about 30% in Morocco and Tunisia.
  6. 6. The labour market situation appears to be the main reason for emigration Change needed for potential emigrants to stay, selected MENA countries, 2010-2014 Source: Gallup World Poll 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Other reasons More freedoms Better opportunities for education Improvements in the economy Find a job or a better job Tunisia Morocco Algeria Egypt percentages
  7. 7. Challenge No.1 for migration governance: how to manage ongoing emigration • How can the process of emigration be included in the development planning of the origin country? • How to achieve a triple-win situation? E.g. in seasonal labour migration, how to ensure certain standards for working conditions (such as in the MISMES project between Morocco and Spain)? • How can migrants be supported through pre- departure services such as language training? • How can migrants’ qualifications be made more transferable or readily recognisable, so that they work less often in jobs they are overqualified for?
  8. 8. Many MENA countries have large diasporas in OECD countries Stocks of emigrants in the OECD, main MENA origin countries, 2000/01 and 2010/11 • 8 million emigrants from MENA countries resided in the OECD in 2010/11. • Numbers were highest in France (2.7 million, 1/3 of all in the OECD), the United States (1.1 million), Spain (700k), Italy (550k) and Canada (500k). • Stocks in Germany, Israel and the United Kingdom were close to 400k. Source: Database of Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC)
  9. 9. High emigration rates for highly-qualified persons and health professionals Emigration rates (in %), 2010/11 Source: Database of Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC), OECD (2015) « Connecting With Emigrants » • In 2010/11, more than 1 in 3 of all emigrants from MENA countries had a tertiary education. • However, many health professionals born in MENA countries might have been trained in the destination country. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Emigrated persons (left scale) Emigration rates in % (right scale) Doctors Nurses 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Sudan SaudiArabia Egypt Iran Syria Libya Jordan MENA Iraq Algeria Tunisia Morocco Lebanon Highly-educated All education levels Health professionals born in selected MENA countries, 2010/11
  10. 10. Emigrants from the MENA countries are highly entrepreneurial Self-employed persons as a share of all employed persons by place of birth, 2014 • The share of self-employment among emigrants from MENA countries is almost always higher than among native-born persons. • Challenge No. 2: how to mobilise emigrants’ skills, their networks and capital for economic development in the origin country? Source: EU-LFS except USA (CPS).
  11. 11. Return migrants can boost entrepreneurship in their origin country Professional status of Moroccan emigrants after return (in percent), 2014 • Among return migrants in Morocco, the share of employers is almost three times as high as for the total population. • Challenge No. 3: how to facilitate the reintegration of return migrants, including entrepreneurs who are not accustomed to the local procedures? Source: 2014 Moroccan census (RGPH).
  12. 12. • MENA students account for 7% of all international students in OECD countries • Their number has grown by 9% from 2013 to 2014 • USA is main destination (33%), followed by France (27%) and UK (13%) • Challenge No.4: how to facilitate academic exchange and mobility, not “brain drain”? 220 000 students from MENA countries enrolled at OECD institutions International students from MENA countries enrolled in OECD countries in 2014 Source : OECD Education Database (OECD, 2016) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Thousands Thousands <------------------------------------ Left axis Right axis ------------------------------------------->
  13. 13. Remittance flows have been stable over the past three years Remittance flows to selected MENA countries in millions of current USD, 2005-2014 • In total, 50 billion currents USD were remitted to MENA countries in 2014, corresponding to more than 2% of the region’s GDP. Source: OECD (2015) « Connecting With Emigrants » based on World Bank data 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Egypt Morocco Tunisia Algeria MENA total (right scale)
  14. 14. The MENA region exhibits the highest costs of sending money Remittance costs by destination • Remittances to the MENA region cost at least 3-5% of the transferred sum, while transfers to most other world regions can be made for below 3% • Challenge No. 5: how to provide secure, low-cost and reliable banking services across borders? Source: OECD (2016) « Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Europe » based on World Bank data.
  15. 15. Challenge No.7: Developing policies to manage permanent immigration and integration • Economic development and growth attract labour migrants to more and more MENA countries, often first from neighbouring countries. • Irregular migrants can abandon their journey to Europe, so that initial transit migration slowly turns into permanent immigration. • A persistent irregular situation might limit the economic contribution from irregular migrants and undermine their integration in the long term.
  16. 16. Contact: OECD International Migration Division: OECD International Migration Outlook, via OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs: For further information