TertiaryEducationThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
Tertiary Education: IndicatorsThis presentation includes data on: Gross Enrollment Rates (GER) for pre-primary and tertiary Correlations between GDP per capita andenrollment rates for each educational level Income/Gender/Location Disparities Expenditures on Tertiary Education
Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)GER Gross Enrollment RateGDP p.c. Gross Domestic Product per capitaGNI Gross National IncomeGAR Gross Attendance RateGPIGender Parity Index (female value/malevalue)
How many youth are enrolled?Tertiary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Around 30% of tertiary ageyouth were enrolled intertiary education 2010.This figure was a 10percentage pointimprovement over 2000(19%). ECA has consistently hadthe highest tertiary GERsof any region. Over half(55.6%) of tertiary ageyouth were enrolled in2010 which is a 17percentage point increaseover 2000. EAP has more thandoubled its tertiary GERover time. SSA lags behind otherregions with 6.8% of youthenrolled in 2010.Almost ¾ of tertiary age youth around the worldare not enrolled in tertiary education.19.121.523.524.927.0 29.201020304050602000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GrossEnrolmentRate.Tertiary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
Which countries have the lowesttertiary enrollment rates? These countries haveless than 4% of tertiaryage students enrolled intertiary education. 33 countries have lessthan 10 percent oftertiary age youthenrolled. 50 countries have morethan half of tertiary ageyouth enrolled. 8 countries have tertiaryGERs higher than 80%and 4 countries havetertiary GERs higher than90%: Finland, the UnitedStates, Cuba, andKorea, Rep.10 Countries with the LowestTertiary Gross Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.082 Malawi 0.723 Niger 1.514 Eritrea 1.995 Tanzania 2.116 Chad 2.177 Central African Republic 2.578 Burundi 3.259 Afghanistan 3.3310 Dominica 3.57Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Notes: Figures are most recent year with data between 2008-2011. Purple =2011; Black = 2010; Blue = 2009; Green = 2008.Data were not available for 72 of 214 countries.
Which countries have improvedtertiary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improved theirtertiary grossenrolment rates by27 to 70 percentagepoints between1999-2001 and2009-2011. 7 countries morethan doubled theirtertiary GER –Cuba, Venezuela,Cyprus,Montenegro, CzechRep., Romania, andArmenia. All of the countriesare in LAC or ECA.10 Countries with the Most Improvementin Tertiary Gross Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001GER2009-2011GER%Improved1 Cuba 70.0 25.2 95.2 277.82 Venezuela, RB 49.8 28.3 78.1 175.63 Cyprus 33.0 21.6 54.6 152.84 Montenegro 31.1 16.6 47.6 187.95 Czech Republic 30.5 30.1 60.7 101.56 Romania 30.5 28.4 58.8 107.47 Uruguay 29.5 33.8 63.3 87.48 Ukraine 27.1 52.4 79.5 51.89 Belarus 27.0 55.9 83.0 48.310 Armenia 26.6 24.9 51.5 106.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Most recent data year available was used from 2008-2011.Data were not available for 97 of 214 countries.
Gross Enrollment Ratio. TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
Do countries with higher income per capitahave higher tertiary enrollment rates? Most countries withgross national income(GNI) per capita lessthan $1000 havetertiary GERs less than11%. Tajikistan (20%)and Kyrgyz Rep (49%)are the two exceptions. Countries with GNI pcmore than $20,000have tertiary GERshigher than 50%except for Qatar(10%), Luxembourg(10.5%), Brunei(17.2%), andLiechtenstein (36.0%).Most countries with a GNI pc higher than $20,000have tertiary GERs higher than 50%.R² = 0.20201020304050607080901000 20 40 60 80Grossenrolmentratio.Tertiary(ISCED5and6).TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.SloveniaBruneiNorwaySwitzerlandUnited StatesFinlandOmanLuxembourg, QatarBelarus
Which regions have reached genderparity in tertiary enrollments? In 2000, the world genderparity index (GPI) fortertiary enrollments was1.0 – perfect genderparity. Since then, femaleGERs have been higherthan male GERs, and theGPI has been movingabove 1.0. MNA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity in 2010. LAC andECA have consistentlyhad higher femaleGERs, and EAP hasreversed from a malebias to a female bias. SAS and SSA havemaintained a strong malebias in tertiaryenrolments over time.Gender disparities in tertiary enrolment rates varygreatly across regions.1.001.021.041.06 1.07 1.080.600.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.18.104.22.1682000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRate.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
Does gender parity exist in tertiaryenrollments in most countries? Only 9 countries arewithin +/-0.05 ofgender parity intertiary enrollments. 63% of countrieshave a female bias intertiary enrolmentsvs. 37% with highermale enrolment rates. One country –Vietnam – has perfectgender parity (1.0). In 10 countries, thefemale GER morethan doubles themale GER. Thesecountries are islandnations in LAC andQatar (see nextslide).The majority of countries have higher femaleenrolment rates than male enrolment rates in tertiaryeducation.0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.505.005.50GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)FemaleBiasMale Bias
Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in tertiary enrolments?10 Countries with the Largest Male Biasin Tertiary Enrolments(2008-2011)1 Chad 0.172 Congo, Rep. 0.213 Afghanistan 0.244 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.315 Central African Republic 0.326 Eritrea 0.337 Guinea 0.338 Ethiopia 0.369 Benin 0.3810 Niger 0.38Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012; Notes:Maroon=2011; Black = 2010; Purple = 2009; Blue = 2008; Data were notavailable for 73 of 213 countries.10 Countries with the Largest FemaleBias in Tertiary Enrolments(2008-2011)1 Qatar 5.382 Dominica 3.353 Antigua and Barbuda 2.584 St. Lucia 2.575 Guyana 2.526 Barbados 2.387 Jamaica 2.288 Cayman Islands 2.249 Bermuda 2.1210 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.10Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012;Notes: Black = 2010; Blue = 2008; Data were not available for 73 of213 countries.
Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in post-secondary attendance ratios? Levels of genderdisparity in post-secondary attendanceare much lower thanlevels of location andincome disparity. Moregirls than boys attendpost-secondary schoolsin EAP, ECA, and LAC. Rural areas havebetween 5 (SSA) and 15(LAC) percent lowerattendance ratios thanurban areas. Income is the largestsource of disparityacross regions. Incomedisparities range from 8percentage points inSSA to 34 in LAC.2Income is the largest source of disparity in post-secondary gross attendance ratios in all regions.-505101520253035EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinGrossAttendanceRatio.Post-Sec.(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
Which countries spend the least perstudent on tertiary education? On average, countriesspend 91% of percapita GDP per tertiarystudent. The medianspending is 30%.These countries spendbetween 3.5 and 12%. Three countries are inECA and 3 are in EAP. Korea, Rep. has the12th lowest spendinglevel, but has a 103%gross enrollment rate. Six of 9 countries haveprivate enrollmentshares higher than50%.10 Countries with the Lowest Share ofp.c. GDP per Tertiary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentTertiaryEnrolmentRate (GER)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Mongolia 3.5 57.2 38.72 Armenia 7.5 48.9 22.83 Lebanon 8.1 57.7 60.84 Liechtenstein 9.2 36.0 100.05 Peru 9.2 43.0 54.36 Philippines 9.6 28.2 65.97 Kazakhstan 10.2 43.2 50.68 Myanmar 10.8 14.89 El Salvador 11.6 23.4 66.610 Georgia 12.3 30.0 20.9Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black figures are for2011; Blue are for 2010; Green for 2009; Maroon for 2008; Purple for 2007; Datawere not available for 96 countries.
Which countries spend the most perstudent on tertiary education? All the listed countriesare in Sub-SaharanAfrica. These countriesspend from 2 to 18times GDP per capitaon each tertiarystudent. Despite highspending, all thecountries in the listhave gross enrollmentrates less than 8%.These countries areall within the bottom20 countries in tertiaryenrolment rates.10 Countries with the Highest Share ofp.c. GDP per Tertiary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentTertiaryEnrolmentRate (GER)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Malawi 1859.4 0.8 10.32 Lesotho 1331.1 3.53 Tanzania 868.2 2.14 Niger 564.6 1.5 25.05 Burundi 350.8 3.2 57.76 Swaziland 296.4 4.47 Botswana 256.3 7.4 100.08 Chad 247.9 2.3 28.29 Burkina Faso 243.1 3.9 22.010 Mauritania 193.5 4.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Black figures are for2011; Blue are for 2010; Green for 2009; Maroon for 2008; Purple for 2007; Beigefor 2006; Data were not available for 96 countries.
Public Expenditure per Pupil as a %of GDP per capita. Tertiary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the latest available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release thatincluded 2010 data for most indicators/countries. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in theEdStats Query.2) Income/Gender/Location Disparity slides were based on dataand analysis extracted from: Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, andLiving Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reports weregenerated through ADePT Edu (2011).Data Sources
The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Literacy Equity Gender