Survey research is difficult in Afghanistan. Violence, illiteracy in both urban and rural areas, cultural constraints, and access to family and women in particular have all been faced by D3 Systems in the process of building a self-sustaining national survey operation in Afghanistan. Grown from an organization capable of simple urban polls of Kabul in 2003 to multistage, nationally representative random survey samples today, D3’s partially-owned subsidiary called the Afghan Center for Socio-Economic Research is a vibrant, busy company conducting research every day throughout Afghanistan. This paper focuses on the various challenges faced by ACSOR operating in Afghanistan. Findings from the 2006 and 2007 nationwide probability samples completed by ACSOR for the Asia Foundation’s Annual Reports on Afghanistan and D3’s research on women’s issues will be included. Particular emphasis will be placed on issues of education, armed violence, lack of familiarity with research, cultural restrictions on women, ethno-linguistic fragmentation, and outdated population data. General results of the D3 Women in Muslim Countries and Asia Foundation surveys are discussed with emphasis on trends across time related to international development issues as they relate to survey research. Among these are human security as Afghans perceive it, the status of women in Afghan society, and education and awareness of democratic practices like public opinion polling among Afghans nationwide. Trends are demonstrated empirically with the Asia Foundation tracking data and supplemented with findings from recent reporting by D3 and the Center for Strategic and International Studies.