Is a result of two factors: ● Fertility ● Mortality
The ratio of births to population of a given area It is measured by: CRUDE BIRTH RATE (CBR) FERTILITY RATE / TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (TFR) REPLACEMANT LEVEL FERTILITY (RLF) CHILD WOMEN RATIO AGE SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATE
most common measure of fertility. Gives an overall picture of the number of births per 1000 population in a year. The number of births per 1000 people in a population per year Formula: CBR = total number of births x 1000 total population
What is thelimitation ofthe indexmeasurement?
Itdoes not take into account the age and sex distribution of the population
It is the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime Varies geographically ◦ e.g in 1994: ◦ Sierra Leone, TFR of 6.5 while ◦ UK, TFR of 1.8 Changes with time
Is the level at which each generation of women has only enough daughters to replace themselves in the population What is the ideal replacement level? 2.1 0r 2
Mortality may prevent a proportion of the female children from reaching their productive years and also, on average, slightly more boys are born than girls
Find the natural increase if a. BR = 25/1000 DR = 10/1000 b. BR = 5/1000 DR = 10/1000 c. BR = 10/1000 DR = 10/1000
a. Infant and child mortalityb. Population momentumc. Views towards childrend. Status for womene. Cultural factorsf. Religion factorsg. Political factors
Isthe ratio of deaths to the population of a given area
CRUDE DEATH RATE (CDR) INFANT MORTALITY RATE (IMR) LIFE EXPECTANCY MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE (MMR) AGE SPECIFIC DEATH RATE (ASDR)
The number of deaths per 1000 population in a year Formula : CDR = total number of deaths x1000 total population
Yes!!! Itshows whether there is improvement in health system or not. If the CDR is low meaning there is improvement in health and if there is no improvement, CDR will be high
It is a measure of the number of deaths of infants before the age of one per 1000 live births in a year
Children respond easily to the state of their mother’s health and the state of pre and ante-natal services
The average number of years a person is expected to live When mortality declines, life expectancy will increase
Ageing population Accessibility to amenities Government commitment to improve health care Living environment Colonial past influence in LEDCs Education among mothers and adults Aids epidemic
Population growth is even slower in developed countries Stabilising birth rates & increasing death rates have already led to natural population decrease in Italy & Germany Japan & Spain are expected to follow soon
Lack of clean water Lack of food Poor hygiene and sanitation Overcrowding Contagious diseases such as diarrhea and respiratory infections Poverty The occurrence of war
Clean water is readily available Reliable food supply Good hygiene and sanitation Lower population densities Better vaccinations and health care Rising standards of living
Highest death rates are found in LEDCs esp. Sub-Saharan Africa. Mali, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambi a – DR of 20/1000
Up to 600 women die for every 100000 children born Pakistan – high DR among females, due to malnourished & limited access to health care
In1990s – DR increased in Russia, Belarus, B ulgaria, Estonia, L atvia, Romania, U kraine, Moldova
Increase Cardiovascular disease Accidents Suicides Murders Stress Substance abuse (smoking & drinking) All these linked to increased unemployment, and worsening living condition
The greater the proportion of population in the old age (65+), the higher the death rate for the population as a whole
Mr. Henry Allingham was born on June 6, 1896 and is now 112.
Of the 40,399 centenarians, 87 percent are women, the Health and Welfare Ministry said. Japans centenarian numbers rank it second in the world behind the United States, which now has more than 96,000, according to U.S. Census Bureau estimates. But the U.S. population is more than double that of Japan.
By2066, there are predicted to be over half a million people aged over 100
Increase in the dependency ratio. This means that there will be more people claiming benefits such as state pensions and less people working and paying income taxes Increased government spending on health care and pensions Those in work will have to pay higher taxes. This could create disincentives to work and for firms to invest, therefore there could be a fall in productivity growth. Shortage of workers. This shortage of workers could push up wages causing wage inflation. Alternatively, firms may have to respond by encouraging more people to enter the workforce, through offering flexible working practices.
Increase participation rate, Raise the retirement age Increase the importance of the private sector in providing pensions and health care. However this may cause increased inequality