Sustainable urban development in LEDCsA sustainable futures require: Use of appropriate technology, materials and design Acceptable minimum standards of living Social acceptability of projects Widespread public participation
Main dimensions of sustainable development are.. Provision of adequate shelter for all Improvement of human settlement management Sustainable landuse planning and management Integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: Water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management Sustainable energy and transport system Settlement planning in disaster prone areas
Sustainable city case study: Curitiba, Brazil Curitiba, a city in SW Brazil, an excellent model for sustainable urban development. It has experience a rapid urban population growth from 300,000 in 1950 to over 2.1 million in 1990 but managed to avoid all the problems with such expansion.
Problems…(1950s & 1960s) Many streams had been covered to form underground canals which restricted water flow Houses and other buildings had been built too close to river New buildings were built on poorly drained land on the periphery of the city Increased in roads and concrete surfaces accelerated runoff
Solution late 1960s onwards.. Natural drainage was preserved – these natural flood plains are used as parks Certain low-lying areas are off-limits Parks have been extensively planted with trees; existing buildings have been converted into new sports and leisure facilities Bus routes and bicycle paths integrate the parks into the urban life of the city
Curitiba – A model sustainable city Although Curitiba has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to 2.2m in 2000, the city has avoided the worst of usual problems of: Congestion Pollution Under-employment Unsanitary living condition Squatter settlement
Extensive urban green space has been developed with one and a half million trees have been planted
Areas prone to flooding have been turned to wetlands
Public transport is high quality and cheap to use.
Options for sustainability Reduce the use of fossil fuel Promote public transport Keep waste production to within levels that can be treated locally Provide sufficient green spaces Reuse and reclaim land Encourage active participation of local community Conserve non-renewable resources Use renewable resources
Options for sustainability.. Compact cities: minimise the amount of distance Use less space Requires less infrastructure Reduce urban sprawl But is the city is too large, an area becomes: Congested Overcrowded Overpriced Polluted * Then it becomes unsustainable.