Internal Migration• A movement between regions within the same country and over relatively short distances• Does not alter the total population of a country but will change population density and population distribution patterns within the country
Types of internal migration• Rural to urban• Urban to rural• Inter-urban• Intra-urban• Rural to rural• transmigration
Rural – Urban Migration• People moving from countryside to cities• Usually repelled by the push factors in the rural areas• attracted by the pull factors in the urban areas• This type of migration increased rapidly in the developing countries in the second half of the 20th century causing rapid urbanisation• Caused growth of cities in Europe during the industrial revolution
Rural-urban Migration the possible factors that may contribute to this movement Declining rural areas -Loss of most vigorous workforce as many young people leaveUrban overpopulation -Loss of agricultural productivity -Overpopulation results as carrying capacity diminishes-Cities lack resources -Little or no investmentto meet needs ofincreased population-Food shortages forceincreased imports Growing City Other Settlements - Act as a magnet - Loss of smaller towns-Rapid growth attracting people from which are encroached byencourages urban all over the country growing citiesinvestmentprogrammes Unemployment High rate of natural - Many seek work in increase informal sector - Large families Urban housing shortages -Slums increase Crime-Shanty towns develop poverty Social problems
How do government response to rural-urban migration1. Investment in rural development projects2. Land redistribution – under traditional inherotance laws, land are fragmented into smaller pieces but3. Prohibiting migrants from becoming urban residents. E.g. Hukou System in China4. Redirect migration to other reception areas. E.g. Indonesia transmigration5. Encourage emigration instead of internal migration Bangladesh – governemnt actively promotes emigration to reduce the problems of overpopulation
Rural – urban migration Case Study: Migration in ChinaPhase 1-• The communist government in China has tried to keep a firm control an internal migration. In 1958, it introduced the household registration scheme known as the Hukou system. A household and the individuals within it, were registered in a particular settlement or district. This gave them prove of identity (an ID card), housing, welfare, education rights but it also controlled their movements. The primary aim of this policy was to restrict rural-urban migration people moved, they lost their Hukou rights and entitlements.
Phase 2- From 1980, China began to introduce a market economy. Capitalist system needs mobile supplies of labour. So in order to bring economic diversification and to reduce rural overpopulation, people were allowed to leave the land but not their district. This short distance migrants were encouraged to set up small businesses in villages and towns. However, during the 1980s, millions of people did move longer distances from the smaller towns to larger cities. They became known as ‘the floating population’ as they were migrants without registration rights. By 1990, the floating population had reached at least 100 millions.
Phase 3- In the late 1980s, to encourage rapid industrialisation, a scheme of temporary residence permits was introduced. This allows people to move to cities but does not give them full Hokou rights. Since then there have been huge migratory surges to the east coast cities such as Shanghai, Hong Kong and Guangzhou.
Question• Summarise the stages of Chinese Migration