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Fertility and its indicators

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Fertility indicators
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Fertility and its indicators

  1. 1. FERTILITY Reshma Rajan M 2nd MA
  2. 2. Fertility Meaning  The Latin root word is fertilis, "bearing in abundance or fruitful," from ferre, "to bear."  The ability to conceive and bear children, the ability to become pregnant through normal sexual activity.  Fertility is the ability to have babies or to reproduce. When fertility rates in a community increase, more babies are born.  Fertility Rate  The ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year  Fertility can be ascertained from statistics of births. The study of fertility does not indicate the level of fecundity for which there is no direct measurement
  3. 3. What is fecundity?  According to Thompson and Lewis. “fecundity is a biological potential the physiological capacity to participate in reproduction. The absence of this potential is known as in fecundity or sterility.” it is capacity to conceive or bear children.
  4. 4. Definition of Terms  Fertility = Production of a live birth (natality)  Infertility = Inability to produce a live birth  Parity = Number of children born alive to a woman  Gravidity = Number of pregnancies a woman has had whether or not they produce a live birth  Fecundity = Physiological capacity to conceive (reproductive potential)  Infecundity (sterility) = Inability of a woman to conceive a pregnancy - Primary sterility = Never able to conceive a pregnancy - Secondary sterility= Inability to conceive after one or more children have been born  Fecundability = Probability that a woman will conceive during a menstrual cycle
  5. 5. Importance  Fertility behavior of a given time gives shape to the future age-sex structure  Studying the fertility behavior has an implication on the overall welfare planning process  Produce the alterations in the size of a population Sources of Data: 1. Registration of vital events 2. Sample Registration System (SRS) 3. National Family Health Surveys (NFHS)
  6. 6. FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY Indirect social factors 1. Age of marriage 2. Polygamy 3. Separation and divorce 4. Widowhood 5. Post partum abstinence 6. Celebacy 7. Frequency of coitus Direct factors influencing fertility 1. Oral pills 2. Loops 3. Condom 4. Abortion 5. infanticide Other social factors 1. Food supply 2. Economic conditions 3. Family system 4. Social status of women and level of education 5. Political system 6. Attitude towards children 7. Desire to maintain status 8. Religion
  7. 7. 1. Age of marriage e.g. marriage generally is younger in sub Saharan Africa than Europe. 2. Monogamy/Pologamy (e.g. muslims having more than one wife) 3. Widowhood/divorce 4. Spousal separation (i.e away working elsewhere e.g. urban migrants in LEDCs. 5. Coital frequency (how often you have sex) 6. Post birth abstinence (not wanting sex after a child) 7. Natural sterility (Inability to conceive or have a child) 8. Pathological sterility (Disease related due to infections e.g. gonorrhoea) 9. Lactational amenorrhea (can’t get pregnant whilst breast feeding 10. Contraceptive use 11. Spontaneous abortion 12. Induced abortion 13. Emancipation of women/status of women (Freedom)/ religious beliefs/literacy rates. 14. Government policies- (see sheet) 15. The value of children 16. Ways in which birth rates can be changed. 17. Economic cost of children 18. Level of education 19. Nature of Employment 20. Type of residence 21. Religious beliefs 22. Health care 23. Family status.
  8. 8. Uses of Measures Of Fertility Quantify the birth performance of a population over a period of time. Used to compare the fertility levels of a number of population, during a particular time interval Exhibit a time trend in fertility in a population in the study of differential fertility by various socio-economic, racial and ethnic groups.
  9. 9. CRUDE INDICATORS OF FERTILITY
  10. 10. 1. Crude Birth Rate This is the number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year. CBR = Number of live births X 1000  Births are only one component of population change, and the birth rate should not be confused with the growth rate, which includes all components of change. Total population
  11. 11. 2. General Fertility Rate  The GFR (also called the fertility rate) is the number of live births per 1,000 and uses the number of women of child bearing age (15-49) in a population as a base for the calculation of a BR rather than the total population. In it only population of reproductive age group is taken into consideration.  Is the number of live births per 1000 women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) in a specific year. GFR = Number of live births Number of women ages 15- 49 ₓ 1000
  12. 12. 3. Age Specific Fertility Rate  Number of births per 1000 women of a specific age (group) in a given year. Fertility rates is calculated for specific age groups to see differences in fertility behavior at different ages or for comparison over time.  Age specific fertility rate (ASFR) is a measure of the number of children born to each age group, in relation to the number of woman in that age group Seven age groups are conventionally used across the span 15-49 years. ASFRs are normally expressed as per 1000 women in each age group. ASFR =
  13. 13. 4. Total Fertility Rates  The average number of children that would be born to a woman by the time she ended childbearing, if she were to pass through all her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year. TFR = ΣASFR / 1,000
  14. 14. 5.Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) Average number of daughters that would be born to a woman (or a group of women) if she survived at least to the age of 49 and conformed to the age-specific fertility rate of a given year. It is often regarded as the extent to which the generation of daughters replaces the preceding generation of females.  GRR is restricted to the number of female children. The value of GR is ½ of the total FR. No. of female Births Total No. of Births GRR = ₓTFR
  15. 15. 6.Cumulative fertility rate.  It is just like TFR with the only difference is that this rate indicates the number of children produced by 1000 women during whole fertility period.
  16. 16. Children Ever Born (CEB)  This is computed from censuses or sample surveys by asking women their age and number of live births they ever had (including those having died since birth)  Provides one measure of population fertility  Useful only if age group of women is considered  Data can be used by demographers to indirectly estimate ASFR and TFR in a population.  CEB for women over age 49 is called Completed Fertility Rate; it shows how many children on average a certain cohort of women who have completed childbearing actually produced during their childbearing years.
  17. 17. Cohort Fertility  The mean parity for a cohort of women who have completed their fertility is that cohort’s TFR
  18. 18. Reproduction Measures  Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR)  The number of female births an average woman would have if she lived through the end of her reproductive span.  Net Reproduction Rate (NRR)  The average number of daughters that female members of a birth cohort would bear during their reproductive life span if they were subject to the observed age- specific maternity rates and mortality rates through their lifetimes.  NRR=1 equals exact replacement fertility
  19. 19. Fertility Rate year India Pakistan Japan 2001 3.08 4.29 1.33 2011 2.53 3.35 1.39
  20. 20. Fertility Rate year India Kerala 2001 3.08 1.70 2011 2.53 1.70
  21. 21. Total Fertility Rates for States INDIA NFHS-3, India, 2005-06  Replacement or below replacement (10 states 35% population)  TFR 2.1 – 2.4 (6 states 20% population)  TFR 2.5 – 3.6 (9 states 19% population)  TFR 3.7 – 4.0 (4 states 25% population)
  22. 22. CAN POVERTY DETERMINE FERTILITY ?  Most of the UDCs are poverty ridden and the couple remains at home, as that cannot afford going out, and enjoy sex, which increases fertility.  Due to poverty, there is always shortage of protein in body, which is responsible for higher fertility.
  23. 23. FERTILITY AND AGE AT MARRIAGE  Early and child marriage has been observed that in developing countries due to climatic and other reasons, girls reach puberty at an early age and as such the period of reproduction of girls is lengthy.  After marriage, LDCs, women are considered to live in the house , settle that and produce children. Since chances of employment and educational facilities are limited, therefore, women always live at home and feel pleasure in bringing up and playing with their children. Thus fertility goes up.
  24. 24. EDUCATION AND FERTILITY  Fertility among educated women is lower as compared with illiterate women.  Education and fertility have started close relationship.. 1. Educated women are quite conscious of having a limited family size. 2. At an age when there are very bright chances of having good fertility, the girls are in the colleges and university and thus do not get children which during this period uneducated girls get. 3. In many cases educated women get employed and with employment they cannot afford to have more children. 4. Span of child producing time in the case of educated women is less, as compared with illiterate women.
  25. 25.  In developed countries, percentage of educated women is always higher, as compared with the UDCs.  Since women and men are both enlightened, they do not allow fertility rate to go up, as long as that is considered absolutely necessary by the couple.  Usually educated women get married at the late stage and also believe in the concept of small planned family.
  26. 26. Just a Few Years of Education Leads to Substantial Reduction in Fertility TFR of women with No education – 3.6  < 5 years of education – 2.5 12+ years of education – 1.8 NFHS-3, India, 2005-06
  27. 27. Causes of differential fertility in the DCs 1. Desire for planned family, 2. High living standard, 3. Urbanisation, 4. Education among the women, 5. Non- dependence on men, 6. Awakening among women, 7. Decreasing influence of religion, 8. Emotional needs of children and 9. Status symbol.
  28. 28. Causes responsible for higher fertility in UDCs 1. Early and child marriage, 2. Poverty 3. Religious and social values 4. Lack of female education 5. Less social awakening 6. No desire for high living standard 7. Agriculture as the main occupation 8. Difficulties in family planning programmes 9. Less urbanisation 10. Less expensive bringing up.
  29. 29. Thank you.....

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