A movement between regions within the same country and over relatively short distances Doesnot alter the total population of a country but will change population density and population distribution patterns within the country
Rural to urban Urban to rural Inter-urban Intra-urban Rural to rural transmigration
People moving from the city or town to the countryside Frequently occurs with elderly people as they see cities as unattractive Upon retirement , many elderly couples move out to rural areas to enjoy a slower pace of living in the countryside E.g. UK’s southeast where families move out from London into semi rural home counties
Push Factors (reasons for the movement away from cities) - higher rates of congestion and pollution - high land values making it harder for people to find affordable housing - higher crime rates Pull Factors (reasons for movements to the countryside) - perceived better quality of life - believed to be a safer and more pleasant environment for children to grow up in less pollution and more open space - lower land-values and more affordable housing - more businesses locating on greenfield sites to make the most of room for expansion and the more pleasant environment.
People move from one town or city to another Common reason: › due to changing work opportunities force people to relocate
People moving within the same urban area or city Common reasons: › Increased transport result in high levels of residential mobility › E.g. post world war II, people moved to the edge of cities (suburbanisation)
People moving from one area of the countryside to another Common in agricultural communities where there is a need to change farming location. E.g. Sheep shearers migrating between ranches in USA and Australia ; nomadic pastoralist, Northern Africa.
Transmigration is one method that a numberof governments have used to try and solvepopulation problems.Indonesia is a vast archipelago of 13000islands stretching over 5000kmPopulation – 205 million (4th most populous country in the world)
60% of Indonesia’s population live on Java itself- making the population density very high- especially in Jakarta. The government needed to stop Jakarta’s urban growth. People migrate to Jakarta in large numbers to find work.
TheGovernment introduced a transmigration policy. aims- to move people from the core area (Java/Jakarta) to the periphery to new farming areas set up by the government.
1930s – the first large-scale movement from parts of Java to Lampung province, South Sumatra. Over200,000 transmigrants were resettle After 2nd world war ( 1949-1970) 450 000 resettle 1970s-1980 – 900 000 people being relocate
The migrants are given: › free transport, › free land ( 2 hectares of arable land) › housing and › Public facilities: schools, clinics › other assistance such as food and › fertiliser for the first 12 months. Even though many have migrated the scheme has not been entirely successful.
Source Area Destination Area Java South Sumatra Bali Sulawesi Madura Kalimantan Lombok Irian Jaya
Impacts on Source (Java) Impacts on destination Thousands of young families left Java Indigenous populations were the rate of rural-urban displaced migration in Java meant Jakarta (the capital) continued to grow The population structure was Population growth was changed as the slowed down, not ethnicity of the reversed periphery changed