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  • Quagmire - keep getting deeper and deeper involved: advisors – planes – ground forces – leaving bases Objective – overthrow VC and make Vietnam safe for democracy Problems : 1) US never involved in all out war – afraid pull China into the war 2) to many restraints – no major cities to bomb and the terrain 3) war without fronts – jungle warfare and NV had excellent tunnel system 4) war without clear objectives – didn’t know why we were there Soldiers to young: 18-21
  • French control – trying to rebuild France after WWII Dienbienphu – Final victory for Vietminh – France leaves
  • Geneva Accords – NV will be communist under Minh, SV will be safe for democracy – US will pick up were France left off, US promises free elections once civilized – never allow because fear Minh will win Ngo Dinh Diem – thought people would embrace him and vote for him in elections he was Americanized Very corrupt: keeps money and never gives any to people, very harsh form of govt. Forces Catholic faith on people – upsets Buddhist population
  • Buddhist protest – in reaction to claim that NV soldiers killed 8 of their men protest by burning themselves in public Images hit the American public – outraged Henry Cabot Lodge – sent to Vietnam to investigate what is going on reports of upheaval and agrees we need to support a coup of Diem After coup US supports many other puppet govts. but none our supported by the people as a whole
  • Johnson from old guard – if keep escalating will wear the enemy out – war of attrition
  • Aug 4, 1964 : not attacked on that day but Johnson tells congress we were to help get the resolution passed Re-election – shows at the start the people supported Johnson and the Vietnam War
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail – internal underground tunnel system and transportation route outside of Vietnam - used to transport supplies and troops from NV to SV
  • Search and destroy missions – uprooting of villagers with suspected ties to the VC, killing their livestock, and burning their villages became a war of casualties A war of attrition
  • Port Huron Statement – charged corporations and large govt. institutions had taken over America and called for a restoration of greater individual freedom
  • FSM – grew out of a clash between students and administrators over free speech on campus – focused attention on the American machine. American Machine – the nations faceless and powerful business and govt. institutions
  • Doves – strongly opposed the war and believed US should withdraw Hawks – believed US should unleash a greater show of military force to end the war Silent Majority – by the end of ’67 a poll showed 2/3 of the American public felt the war was justified - 70% felt the protesting of the war was an “act of disloyalty”
  • Kha Sahn – heavily fortified US camp that was siege by VC & NV – successfully implemented the first phase of Tet lasted until April when US & ARVN forces finally defeated the communist aggressors US Embassy in Saigon – VC were initially successful in capturing the US embassy for 5-6 hours but within 2 weeks the US & ARVN totally defeated the VC Hue – longest battle in Tet lasting 3 weeks – in the end the US was able to defeat the VC
  • At this time Nixon openly opposes the anti-war movement attacking them, he calls on the silent majority to support his plan
  • Calley – was found guilty of murder of 22 villagers and sentenced to life hard labor – only served a couple of days before put on house arrest and eventually pardoned by Nixon
  • Nixon Doctrine – US not going to get involved in third world civil wars again recalled 25,000 troops Kent State Shooting – simulation Easter Offensive – NV knows US is pulling out so a sharp attack will cause immediate withdrawal of Am. troops series of 3 attacks in the North, Central, and South part of SV NV put down – US only gave aerial support – shows SV can fight NV on their own but needs US aerial support
  • Paris Peace Agreement : US pulls out of Laos and Cambodia NV will release POWs and respect 17 th parallel SV has promise if get in trouble US will help them War Powers Act – president must inform Congress within 48 hours if US forces are sent into a hostile area without a declaration of war troops can remain there no longer than 90 days without Congressional approval Fall 74-75 – Vietnam becomes one united Communist state which it is still today


  • 2. A Overview Consequence ofContainment Policy A quagmire Objective Problems the U.S.was faced with Ho Chi Minh– Goal of the Vietminh
  • 3. Vietnam Map
  • 4. Timeline: 1945-1963 1945: France takes control of Vietnam 1946: French arrive to fight offVietminh revolt 1954: Dienbienphu – Vietminh defeatthe French
  • 5. Timeline: 1945-1963 Cont.What to do with Vietnam? Geneva Accords– 17thParallel– Fear of the Domino Effect Ngo Dinh Diem put in charge of SouthVietnam 1957: Vietcong/NLF established
  • 6. Timeline 1945-1963 Cont.Kennedy’s Administration 1961: Promised free election in Vietnam butU.S. denies U.S. sends in more advisors and the GreenBerets to train S.V. army Spring 1963: Buddhist protest against Diem Oct. 26, 1963: Lodge gives signal for a coupover Diem Nov. 1, 1963: Coup successfully kills Diem Kennedy announces a plan to withdrawfrom Vietnam– He is assassinated
  • 7. Timeline 1964-1968Johnson’s WarOverall expansion of U.S. involvement inVietnam
  • 8. Gulf of Tonkin Incident Feb. 1964: OperationPlan 34 Alta (Oplan 34-A) – commando raidsin North Vietnam– Desoto Patrols – navalsurveillance of N.V. June 1964: U.S. sendsout peace feelers –only peace if U.S. getsout of Vietnam– Westmoreland namedGeneral
  • 9. Gulf of Tonkin Incident Cont. Aug 2, 1964: 3 N.V. ships attack USSMaddox – captain wants to leave area butordered to stay Aug 4, 1964: radar goes off and the Maddoxfires back – think they are being attacked Aug 5, 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution– Blank Check– Undeclared Declaration of War Nov-Dec 1964: Johnson wins re-election
  • 10. Goals of 1965 1) Stabilize government of S. Vietnam 2) Get rid of guerillas in S. Vietnam 3) Escalation of ground troops 4) Cut off supply routes– Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • 11. 1965: Operation Rolling Thunder U.S. land 3,500 marines into N. Vietnamalong with constant bombing of the North inone of the largest attacks– Bomb industry, roads, bridges– Restricted on what can bomb Negotiations: Johnson wants Minh to rejectgoal of all control of Vietnam, however Minhrefuses
  • 12. U.S. Choices at this time 1) Cut loses and get out 2) Give into Minh and leave 3) Take middle road – attrition Introduce Search and DestroyMissions
  • 13. Overall Escalation1961-1968 1961: 400 advisors 1963: 16,500 men 1965: 161,000 men 1966: 400,000 men 1967: 475,000 men 1968: 500,000+ men
  • 14. U.S. Anti-WarMovementAmerica Speaks Out
  • 15. Govt. loosing support (why) 1) LBJ promised quick and decisive war, butwar kept dragging on 2) Number of U.S. troops in Vietnammassively increasing along with casualties 3) First TV war, showed the US was at astalemate with no end in site 4) Gen. Westmoreland’s claim that US waswinning looked like a lie
  • 16. The New Left Growing youth movement in the ’60sthat called for a change in Americansociety, basing it more on equality
  • 17. Students for aDemocratic Society Tom Hayden & Al Haber University of Michigan Port Huron Statement
  • 18. Free Speech Movement Cal Berkley Focused on the American Machine
  • 19. America’s Two Camps Doves vs. Hawks The Silent Majority
  • 20. Woodstock
  • 21. 1968The Tumultuous Year
  • 22. Tet Offensive Phase One– Draw troops out ofcities– Bring them into thecountry side– Ex: Kha Sahn Phase Two– 84,000 VC & NVAattack cities of S.V.– U.S. Embassy inSaigon– Hue
  • 23. Outcome of Tet Technically a failure for N.V. Psychologically a victory for the N.V. Media plays a role at home Westmoreland wants more men –believes N.V. are crippled– VC lost 70% of fighting force
  • 24. Election of 1968M a r c hP r im a r y E le c t io n sN o v e m b e rP o p u la r V o t eD e c e m b e rE le c t o r a l C o lle g eJ a n u a r yI n a u g u r a t io nE le c t io n T im e lin e
  • 25. Events of the Electionof 1968 Primaries– Johnson loosing, announces will not seekparties nomination– Bobby Kennedy assassinated Democratic National Convention– Riot breaks out – shows how the war hasreached home
  • 26. Outcome of theElection of 1968 Democrat: Humphrey Republican: Nixon Radical: Wallace Nixon wins with 56% of the electoralvote
  • 27. Journal Activity Examine how the year of 1968 isconsidered a turbulent year thatforever changed the US, removing anysense of innocence. Completelyexplain your response.
  • 28. Overall Effect of 1968 Created widespread distrust andcontempt for the US govt. Shamed the US govt. and military Massive questioning of the US as aworld superpower Changed US policy towards foreignpolicy and intervention
  • 29. Nixon on Vietnam1969 - 1973
  • 30. Vietnamization (March ’69) Calls for the withdraw of 540,000troops in Vietnam over a period of time SV with US money and weapons willtake over the fight To implement US must get rid ofsupply routes– Calls for increase in bombing - Cambodia
  • 31. My Lai MassacreMarch 16, 1969 Presumed all villagers were VC orhelping Soldiers opened fire on villagers killingaround 500 people Lasted 2 hours Led by Officer Calley
  • 32. Actions UnderVietnamization June 8, 1969: Nixon Doctrine April 30, 1970: Announce invasion ofCambodia– Kent State Massacre June 29, 1970: Gives SV 8 months tobuild military and prepare to take over 1972: Easter Offensive – an attack byNV on SV
  • 33. Actions UnderVietnamization Cont. Jan. 1973: Paris Peace Agreement – acease fire Nov. 1973: War Powers Act Fall 74-75: NV resumes attack on SV– US doesn’t help– US helicopter people out of embassy inSaigon
  • 34. US Embassy Evacuation