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  1. 1.  France controlled “Indochina”France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19since the late 19thth centurycentury  Japan took control during WorldJapan took control during World War IIWar II  With U.S. aid, France attemptedWith U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwarre-colonization in the postwar periodperiod  The French lost control to Ho ChiThe French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’sMinh’s Viet MinhViet Minh forces in 1954 atforces in 1954 at Dien Bien PhuDien Bien Phu
  2. 2. Began by “Ike” and JFK but was intensified under Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ), who assumed the presidency after JFK’s assassination The U.S. never formally issued a declaration of war, but after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, where 2 American destroyers were apparently fired upon by the North Vietnamese, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions (August 1964) - here Congress gave LBJ their support in sending American personnel and materiel
  3. 3. 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 1961 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 U.S. Troops
  4. 4. Fighting on home turf. They knew the land. Had protection in Laos and Cambodia (Americans could not fight there). S. Vietnamese were indifferent to the Americans’ efforts. Not helpful. Guerrilla warfare frustrating to ground troops. Sabotage worked well. Land Mines. Who was a friend, and who was
  5. 5. THE ONLY WAY WE KNEW HOW! Saturation Bombing – dropping lots of explosives over large areas. Defoliants (Agent Orange) – kill all vegetation in jungle; also kill people breathing it in.
  6. 6. President Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder – 3-year, nonstop bombing campaign on North Vietnam. Didn’t work.
  7. 7. Ho Chi Minh Trail: Route Communists took to stage attacks in the South. The trail is in Laos and Cambodia (the U.S. couldn’t bomb there)! The Communists also built an extensive tunnel system from the North to the South. Fighting in the tunnels became
  8. 8.  N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attackN. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attackSouth simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)in Saigon)  Take every major southern cityTake every major southern city  U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensiveU.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive  Viet Cong destroyedViet Cong destroyed  N. Vietnamese army debilitatedN. Vietnamese army debilitated  BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat byBUT…it’s seen as an American defeat by the mediathe media
  9. 9. Those persons captured by the VC and who were found to have helped the Americans were tortured and executed. 3,000-5,000 were killed during the Tet Offensive.
  10. 10.  Domestic U.S. Reaction:Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust ofDisbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson AdministrationJohnson Administration  WAR PROTEST MOVEMENTWAR PROTEST MOVEMENT BEGINSBEGINS
  11. 11.  DisproportionateDisproportionate representation of poorrepresentation of poor people and minorities.people and minorities.  Severe racial problems.Severe racial problems.  Major drug problems.Major drug problems.  Officers in combatOfficers in combat 6 mo.; in rear6 mo.; in rear 6 mo. Enlisted6 mo. Enlisted men in combat for 12 in combat for 12 mo.
  12. 12. Rounded everybody up. Killed 400 members of the village. Some soldiers received prison sentences for their role in the massacre.
  13. 13. Peace talks began in Paris in 1968 but no agreement was being reached. Nixon comes up with Vietnamization, trading out American soldiers for newly trained S. Vietnamese soldiers. Sound familiar??? Nixon spreads the war to Cambodia. This caused a civil war in Cambodia and a lot more protests at home. Nixon, however, could no longer
  14. 14.  After last minute rounds of bombing by both sides, peace was reached in January of 1973:  U.S. full withdrawal from Vietnam.  POW’s released.  No more fighting in Laos and Cambodia.  17th parallel to divide N. and S. Vietnam.
  15. 15.  Conditions:Conditions: 1)1) U.S. to remove allU.S. to remove all troopstroops 2)2) North Vietnam couldNorth Vietnam could leave troops already inleave troops already in S.V.S.V. 3)3) North Vietnam wouldNorth Vietnam would resume warresume war 4)4) No provision for POWsNo provision for POWs or MIAsor MIAs
  16. 16.  Last American troops left SouthLast American troops left South  fighting continued for two more years. N. Vietnamese launched offensives to take over Saigon Vietnam on March 29, 1973Vietnam on March 29, 1973  1975: North Vietnam defeats1975: North Vietnam defeats South VietnamSouth Vietnam  Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh CitySaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City
  17. 17. .