Ap vietnam

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Ap vietnam

  1. 1. TheVietnamWar 1956-1974
  2. 2. America’s Longest War
  3. 3. The Vietnam War Background • Vietnam ( Indochina) was a colony of France for decades • From 1939-1945 Vietnam was controlled by Japan • After WWII, just like in Korea, Vietnam was divided (17th parallel) North Vietnam was controlled by the Communist, while South Vietnam was allied to the U.S. • The North was led by Ho Chi Minh , his goal was to unite Vietnam into one nation
  4. 4. The French and Vietnam But the French had no intention of seeing Vietnam become independent or communist. The French asked the US to help—this put the US in a difficult position.
  5. 5. • The US didn’t want the French to have Vietnam but it didn’t want Vietnam to become communist either—remember the Cold War is still going on. • So the US helped the French with money and war materials. • But after much fighting, the French gave up. The US was left holding up South Vietnam
  6. 6. • after the French left Vietnam it remained divided. The South being governed Diem. His government was very unstable. But the U.S. still supported the South. • Ho Chi Minh’s goals had not changed
  7. 7. Elections President Diem refused to have elections—said that Ho Chi Minh would not have fair elections. So Ho Chi Minh organized a new guerrilla army, Vietcong, and sent them down to South Vietnam. The US increased aid to South Vietnam but despite all the aid and advisors, the Vietcong continued to be powerful.
  8. 8. • One reason the Vietcong was so powerful was because the South Vietnamese did not like President Diem—he was corrupt and catholic and increasingly discriminatory against the Buddhists—the majority religion in the area.
  9. 9. Assassination of President Diem
  10. 10. • The assassination of Diem with the approval of the Kennedy’s admistration only made matters worse in Vietnam. It grew increasingly weak and unstable. The US became even more deeply involved. The President Kennedy was killed. Now the problem became Johnson’s.
  11. 11. The United States Goes To Vietnam • In the 1950’s President Eisenhower, sent some advisors and money to aid the French in their fight • In 1960 President Kennedy sent 2,000 advisors to South Vietnam • After Kennedy was assassinated President Johnson was determined not to let Vietnam meet the same fate as China and North Korea • American involvement in Vietnam was based on the “Domino Theory” that if Vietnam fell to the communist so would all of South East Asia
  12. 12. Johnson and Vietnam No President wanted to appear soft on Communism. He did not want the fate that Truman had had in regards to China. On one hand he says “we do not seek to widen this conflict” and on the other hand he sought a way to “win” this struggle.
  13. 13. 1965 The Escalation Begins • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, and Resolution • In 1965 an American warship was attacked by North Vietnamese forces in the Gulf Of Tonkin. LBJ used this incident to say “ The U.S. would use any means possible to defend South Vietnam from Communism”.
  14. 14. The War In Vietnam 1965-1972 • Between 1965 and 1968 U.S. forces escalated from about 150,000 to over 500,00 men years from 1965 to 1968.
  15. 15. Vietnam The Soldiers War • The average age of the Vietnam War soldier was 18 years old, many of whom were drafted. They faced many hardships.The geography and climate of Vietnam was very difficult. The enemy was also very difficult he could be your friend by day and killing you by night.
  16. 16. The Vietnam War 1960-1965 • Starting in around 1960 the North began guerilla attacks into the South using a citizen army called the Viet Cong, Charlie, V.C., Ghosts
  17. 17. • And as the war dragged on, they faced a very unpopular war • They also faced all kinds of Booby Traps.
  18. 18. The Tunnel Rats
  19. 19. The Air War In Vietnam—Operation Rolling Thunder
  20. 20. The War Of The Rivers and Delta’s
  21. 21. Dust Off
  22. 22. http://youtu.be/aVgoOVl6cb4 http://youtu.be/aVgoOVl6cb4 Music from the time
  23. 23. An Antiwar Movement Emerges • As the casualties began to build in Vietnam, many people began to protest the war.
  24. 24. Why? • A Civil war in which the US had no business in • South Vietnam was a world away—no relevance • Anger at the Draft--unfair • Many famous started to voice opposition to the war
  25. 25. • • http://youtu.be/TxxeyPBB36c
  26. 26. 1968 The Turning Point Year • Up to 1968 President Johnson, General Westmoreland assured the American people we were winning in Vietnam • The Vietcong and the regular North Vietnamese army executed the Tet Offensive. They attacked every major city in South Vietnam including Saigon
  27. 27. Walter Cronkite http://youtu.be/kcSeecx-Z1E
  28. 28. Effects of the Tet Offensive • Although the Tet Offensive was not a military victory, it had dramatic effects in America, public opinion began to turn against the war. The anti-war protest became larger and louder. LBJ under extreme pressure chooses not to run for re-election in 1968.
  29. 29. 1968-A year of Violence MLK killed in April http://youtu.be/BCrx_u3825g
  30. 30. The Election of 1968 Republican Richard M. Nixon runs for President pledging to end the War-with a secret plan. Many Democrats try to get the nomination: Robert Kennedy Eugene McCarthy Hubert Humphrey
  31. 31. California Primary • http://youtu.be/ilZuAnBXeM8
  32. 32. Chicago Democratic Convention • Stung by the loss of the one candidate who might have been able to win the election and end the war, demonstrators set out to Chicago. Thousands stormed into Chicago, where Mayor Richard Daley prepared 12,000 policeman—armed with billy clubs, tear gas and guns-- to keep order—the result massive confrontation
  33. 33. “The whole world is watching” • http://youtu.be/oQkgCZylkBc • http://youtu.be/epxmX_58tOo • http://youtu.be/eaBwgsZhZJA • 1968- The Conventions • http://youtu.be/0l4n5uw_GFM • 1968 Mexico Olympics • http://youtu.be/uqhv1g0sIpY • http://youtu.be/k9NsN0ybTec -trailer
  34. 34. Nixon Becomes President • He becomes President and starts Vietnamization—the process of gradual withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam. And at the same time starts to bomb Cambodia and Laos • Pentagon Papers-Daniel Ellsburg -the individual most responsible for illegally leaking the Pentagon Papers to the press in 1971
  35. 35. Massacre at My Lai
  36. 36. Anti-war protest at Kent State turned deadly
  37. 37. http://youtu.be/GI7-m919ynU CSNY-Ohio
  38. 38. Nixon and the Vietnam War • Nixon was elected on the promise he would get use out of Vietnam “ Peace With Honor” • He began a process of Vietnamization, turning the war over to South Vietnam. • After negotiations with China and Russia, and continued bombing he was able to secure the peace • Jan 1973, Nixon announced the suspension of all military action in Vietnam • The terms were simple The North would not invade the South and we would leave Vietnam
  39. 39. The Fall of Saigon 1975 http://youtu.be/IdR2Iktffaw
  40. 40. The Effects of the Vietnam War • 58,000 Americans died, thousands were wounded. Millions of Vietnamese died • Cost America millions of dollars • Americans began to distrust and question the government • We did not win. Wars had to be short and decisive • The War Power Act, said the President could not send troops anywhere without congressional approval
  41. 41. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
  42. 42. • Despite the belief in the Domino Theory, communism did not spread to the rest of Southeast Asia. However in Cambodia a horrible and repressive regime came into power under the government of Pol Pot.
  43. 43. • He wanted to completely erase any western, capitalist, or colonialist influence on his people. Estimates are that he killed ¼ of the population. Vietnam will overthrow that regime.
  44. 44. Historical Perspective • US failed to achieve its military objective WHY? Critics argue the US failed to understand the nature of the war Understood the conflict in simply Cold War terms and not a Civil War Lack of Asian experts
  45. 45. • Some military leaders blame the civilian government placing restrictions on he conduct of the war • Some leaders blame the media
  46. 46. Lessons from Vietnam • Should not go into an area with no vital interest to our security • Should not go into a War unless confident they can rally and sustain the support of the American people

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