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Lesson 1 the vietnam war background

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Lesson 1 the vietnam war background

  1. 1. The Vietnam War
  2. 6. Vietnam In the world today
  3. 7. SE Asia Location of Vietnam
  4. 8. French Indo-China at the start of WW2 in 1939
  5. 9. By 1954 the Geneva Accord created the 17 th parallel Demilitarised zone. North Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem Elections to be held in 1956 and reunite the country
  6. 10. <ul><li>http:// documentaryheaven.com/vietnam -the-ten-thousand-day-war/ </li></ul>
  7. 11. A brief introduction to the conflict The Vietnam War was really a civil war between the Communist North, led by Ho Chi Minh and the non Communist South rules by Ngo Dinh Diem. However, the conflict between these groups developed from Vietnam’s colonial history. Before WWII Vietnam had been ruled by the French who fled the country when the Japanese invaded. The Vietnamese people rose up and defeated the Japanese. The Vietnamese under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh were free to rule themselves. He declared Vietnam to be an independent democratic republic. However, at the end of WWII, the French tried to reclaim Vietnam and invaded the country again. The French took the South (capital Saigon) and pushed Ho Chi Minh into the North of the country. Ho Chi Minh launched a guerrilla war against the French and tried to unite Vietnam again.
  8. 12. The war lasted until 1954. The world’s leading powers met in Geneva to stop the conflict. The French withdrew its troops, but Vietnam was temporarily divided in two. The South would be ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem, and the North was to be ruled by Ho Chi Minh. Elections were promised in 1956 and the country would be re-united.
  9. 13. However, these elections never took place, and the country was not united. Why? Mainly because of the actions of the USA. The problem was that Ho Chi Minh was incredibly popular in the North and the South of the country. If elections had been held, he would have come to power. Why was that a problem? Because he was communist, and the USA were embroiled in the Cold War.
  10. 15. That meant that the USA supported Ngo Dinh Diem – a really unpopular leader who was cruel to his people. Diem was Catholic in a predominantly Buddhist country and punished those who were not Christian. He also refused to introduce land reforms, so the majority of land was in the hands of a rich corrupt few, while the rest of the peasant population struggled. He hunted down his opponents, imprisoned them and executed those who failed to give up their views.
  11. 17. So Ho Chi Minh launched a guerrilla war on South Vietnam <ul><li>The Northern Army was called the Vietminh (after Ho Chi Minh), but they also attracted supporters from the South. The army working to overthrow Diem in the South were called the Vietcong . </li></ul>
  12. 18. America Gets involved <ul><li>At first America just sent in advisors and military aid (money and weapons). </li></ul><ul><li>Their commitment gradually developed until President Lyndon B Johnson eventually sent in ground troops (fighters) in 1965 in response to Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964). </li></ul>
  13. 22. Despite US expectations that the Vietcong would be defeated by America’s superior technology and wealth, the war dragged on to 1973. As death rates rose and horrific images of war were beamed all over America by TV, many people started to protest against the war.
  14. 23. In 1973 the American government brokered a ceasefire and pulled out of the country. After the loss of 47,000 US soldiers and around 1,100,000 opposition fighters, the war ended with both sides agreeing on the borders established in 1954. America withdrew its forces and refused to grant more money to the South to protect itself. Just months later, the North Vietnamese invaded the South and united Vietnam under Communist rule.
  15. 24. <ul><li>The Two Sides </li></ul><ul><li>North Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Vietcong/Vietminh </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh leader (very popular) </li></ul><ul><li>Communist </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by North Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to set up a democratic republic </li></ul><ul><li>Included NLF (National Liberation Front) – from South Vietnam12 different nationalist groups including Buddhists </li></ul><ul><li>Helped financially by China and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Ngo Dinh Diem leader (very unpopular). The USA eventually supported a coup to remove corrupt Diem, but leaders unstable and temporary. </li></ul><ul><li>USA gave financial and advisory support and then troops </li></ul><ul><li>Army of the Republic of Vietnam </li></ul>
  16. 25. The Vietnam War was really a civil war between the Communist North, led by Ho Chi Minh, and the non Communist South ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem. However, the conflict between these groups developed from Vietnam’s colonial history. Before WWII Vietnam had been ruled by the French, who fled the country when the Japanese invaded. The Vietnamese people rose up and defeated the Japanese. The Vietnamese under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh were free to rule themselves. He declared Vietnam to be an independent democratic republic. However, at the end of WWII, the French tried to reclaim Vietnam and invaded the country again. The French took the South (capital Saigon) and pushed Ho Chi Minh into the North of the country. Ho Chi Minh launched a guerrilla war against the French and tried to unite Vietnam again. The war lasted until 1954. The world’s leading powers met in Geneva to stop the conflict. The French withdrew its troops, but Vietnam was temporarily divided in two. The South would be ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem, and the North was to be ruled by Ho Chi Minh. Elections were promised in 1956 and the country would be re-united. However, these elections never took place, and the country was not united. Why? Mainly because of the actions of the USA. The problem was that Ho Chi Minh was incredibly popular in the North and the South of the country. If elections had been held, he would have come to power. Why was that a problem? Because he was communist, and the USA was embroiled in the Cold War. That meant that the USA supported Ngo Dinh Diem – a really unpopular leader who was cruel to his people. Diem was Catholic in a predominantly Buddhist country and persecuted many non-Christians. He also refused to introduce land reforms, so the majority of land was in the hands of a rich, corrupt few, while the rest of the peasant population struggled. He hunted down his opponents, imprisoned them and executed those who failed to give up their views. The Northern Army was called the Vietminh (after Ho Chi Minh), but they also attracted supporters from the South. The US called the army working to overthrow Diem in the South the Vietcong, or Vietnamese Communists. At first America just sent in advisors and military aid (money and weapons). Their commitment gradually developed until President Lyndon B Johnson eventually sent in ground troops (fighters) in 1965 in response to Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964). Despite US expectations that the Vietcong would be defeated by America’s superior technology and wealth, the war dragged on to 1973. As death rates rose and horrific images of war were beamed all over America by TV, many people in the USA started to protest against the war. In 1973 the American government brokered a ceasefire and pulled out of the country. After the loss of 47,000 US soldiers and around 1,100,000 opposition fighters, the war ended with both sides agreeing on the borders established in 1954. America withdrew its forces and refused to grant more money to the South to protect itself. Just months later, the North Vietnamese invaded the South and united Vietnam under Communist rule. A brief introduction to the conflict
  17. 26. Timeline <ul><li>Either students to sort into chronological order and write out or just print out slide 30. </li></ul><ul><li>Students then to answer questions on slide 31. </li></ul>
  18. 27. Timeline of events in the Vietnam War 1945 – Japan defeated in WWII and withdraw from Indo-China (including Vietnam). Vietminh take control. 1965 (Feb) - US start bombing campaign – called Operation Rolling Thunder. 200,000 US ground troops sent in to help South. 1970 (May)– Kent State Massacre 1954 – Vietminh win decisive battle over French at Dien Bien Phu. International meeting is held and divides Vietnam in two temporarily until elections can be held. The North is communist (run by Ho Chi Minh, and the Vietminh – now called Vietcong). The South is ruled by Diem and is non-communist. 1973 – Peace Agreement. Last US troops leave Saigon 1968 (May) - Burning of the draft cards ‘Catonsville Nine’ 1956-1959 – The South, backed by America refuses to hold elections. Civil War breaks out between Communists North and non-communist South. 1968 (March) – Mai Lai Massacre. Public only found out about in November 1969. 1964 (August) – Gulf of Tonkin Incident. 1968 (January) – Tet Offensive April 1970 – Nixon spreads war to Camboldia 1968 – President Lyndon Johnson decides not to run for re-election. He ends Operation Rolling Thunder. 1975 – North Vietnam Army takes over South. All Americans living in Vietnam airlifted out of Saigon. 1969 – Richard Nixon elected promising to end the war. He starts process of Vietnamisation. 1971 (Feb) – Nixon spreads war to Laos 1967 – Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) formed in the USA 1971 – Operation Phoenix exposed 1945 – French try to regain control over Vietnam. Guerrilla war breaks out. Below are the key events of the Vietnam War. The first date is in the correct position. The others are mixed up. Create a timeline on an A3 Sheet/double page spread in your book. Leave 1cm between each year and write vertically.
  19. 28. Timeline of events in the Vietnam War 1945 – Japan defeated in WWII and withdraw from Indo-China (including Vietnam). Vietminh take control. 1945 – French try to regain control over Vietnam. Guerrilla war breaks out. 1954 – Vietminh win decisive battle over French at Dien Bien Phu. International meeting is held and divides Vietnam in two temporarily until elections can be held. The North is communist (run by Ho Chi Minh, and the Vietminh – now called Vietcong). The South is ruled by Diem and is non-communist. 1956-1959 – The South, backed by America refuses to hold elections. Civil War breaks out between Communists North and non-communist South. 1964 (August) – Gulf of Tonkin Incident. 1965 (Feb) - US start bombing campaign – called Operation Rolling Thunder. 200,000 US ground troops sent in to help South. 1967 – Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) formed in the USA 1968 (January) – Tet Offensive 1968 (March) – Mai Lai Massacre. Public only found out about in November 1969. 1968 (May) - Burning of the draft cards in America ‘Catonsville Nine’ 1968 – President Lyndon Johnson decides not to run for re-election. He ends Operation Rolling Thunder. 1969 – Richard Nixon elected promising to end the war. He starts process of Vietnamisation. April 1970 – Nixon spreads war to Camboldia 1970 (May)– Kent State Massacre 1971 (Feb) – Nixon spreads war to Laos 1971 – Operation Phoenix exposed 1973 – Peace Agreement. Last US troops leave Saigon 1975 – North Vietnam Army takes over South. All Americans living in Vietnam airlifted out of Saigon.
  20. 29. 1945 – Japan defeated in WWII and withdraw from Indo-China (including Vietnam). Vietminh take control. 1945 Timeline of events in the Vietnam War
  21. 30. 1945 – Japan defeated in WWII and withdraw from Indo-China (including Vietnam). Vietminh take control. 1945 – French try to regain control over Vietnam. Guerrilla war breaks out. 1954 – Vietminh win decisive battle over French at Dien Bien Phu. International meeting is held and divides Vietnam in two temporarily until elections can be held. The North is communist (run by Ho Chi Minh, and the Vietminh – now called Vietcong). The South is ruled by Diem and is non-communist. 1956-1959 – The South, backed by America refuses to hold elections. Civil War breaks out between Communists North and non-communist South. 1964 (August) – Gulf of Tonkin Incident. 1965 (Feb) - US start bombing campaign – called Operation Rolling Thunder. 200,000 US ground troops sent in to help South. 1967 – Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) formed in the USA 1968 (January) – Tet Offensive 1968 (March) – Mai Lai Massacre. Public only found out about in November 1969. 1968 (May) - Burning of the draft cards in America ‘Catonsville Nine’ 1968 – President Lyndon Johnson decides not to run for re-election. He ends Operation Rolling Thunder. 1969 – Richard Nixon elected promising to end the war. He starts process of Vietnamisation. April 1970 – Nixon spreads war to Camboldia 1970 (May)– Kent State Massacre 1971 (Feb) – Nixon spreads war to Laos 1971 – Operation Phoenix exposed 1973 – Peace Agreement. Last US troops leave Saigon 1975 – North Vietnam Army takes over South. All Americans living in Vietnam airlifted out of Saigon. Key Events in the Vietnam War
  22. 31. What can you learn from the timeline? <ul><li>Why did America prevent elections from happening? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the leader of the Communist North? </li></ul><ul><li>How long did Operation Rolling Thunder Last? </li></ul><ul><li>When did the US send in ground troops? </li></ul><ul><li>When did the war end? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence is there that overall the US was unsuccessful in the war in Vietnam? </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Tet Offensive, Mai Lai Massacre and Kent State Massacre. These were all US turning points in public opinion of the war. </li></ul>

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