Vietnam war

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  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I. The U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I. The U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.
  • Realizing he would lose, Diem backed out of elections.
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive. JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat. The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.
  • What Johnson told Congress What he didn’t tell Congress: He had already written the resolution before the “incident.” The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time. He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred. The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.
  • What Johnson told Congress What he didn’t tell Congress: He had already written the resolution before the “incident.” The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time. He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred. The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive. JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat. The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes. He involved us more. “ Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw. Expansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.
  • Vietnam war

    1. 1. The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975
    2. 2. Background to the War <ul><li>France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Japan took control during World War II </li></ul><ul><li>With U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwar period </li></ul>
    3. 4. Background to the War <ul><li>The French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu </li></ul><ul><li>President Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Background to the War <ul><li>International Conference at Geneva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam was divided at 17 th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ngo Dinh Diem , a French-educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the South </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Background to the War <ul><li>A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Diem backed out of the elections, leading to military conflict between North and South </li></ul>
    6. 7. U.S. Military Involvement Begins <ul><li>Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diem’s family holds all power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth is hoarded by the elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist majority persecuted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torture, lack of political freedom prevail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. aided Diem’s government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. Eisenhower sent financial and military aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. U.S. Military Involvement Begins <ul><li>Kennedy elected 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Increases military “advisors” to 16,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy was assassinated just weeks later (Nov. 22) </li></ul>
    8. 9. Johnson Sends Ground Forces <ul><li>Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China  Domino Theory revived (If one country fell to communism the surrounding countries would also fall.) </li></ul>I’m going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went. not
    9. 10. Johnson Sends Ground Forces <ul><li>Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamara </li></ul><ul><li>Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked) </li></ul><ul><li>Tonkin Gulf Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Blank Check” * - Johnson could send as many forces as he wanted to Vietnam </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. U.S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam
    11. 12. The Ground War 1965-1968 <ul><li>No territorial goals </li></ul><ul><li>Body counts on TV every night (first “living room” war ) </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Cong (N. Vietnamese Communists) supplies over the Ho Chi Minh Trail </li></ul>
    12. 13. The Air War 1965-1968 <ul><li>1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail . </li></ul><ul><li>Downed Pilots: P.O.W.s </li></ul><ul><li>Carpet Bombing – napalm </li></ul>
    13. 14. Who Is the Enemy? <ul><li>Vietcong : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers by day; guerillas at night. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their resourcefulness. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Who Is the Enemy? The guerilla wins if he does not lose, the conventional army loses if it does not win. -- Mao Zedong
    15. 16. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 <ul><li>N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon) </li></ul><ul><li>Take every major southern city </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. + ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam – South Vietnam) beat back the offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Cong destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>N. Vietnamese army debilitated </li></ul><ul><li>BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat by the media </li></ul>
    16. 17. The Tet Offensive, January 1968
    17. 18. Impact of the Tet Offensive <ul><li>Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today? </li></ul>
    18. 19. Impact of the Vietnam War <ul><li>… I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President. </li></ul>Johnson announces (March, 1968):
    19. 20. American Morale Begins to Dip <ul><li>Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Severe racial problems </li></ul><ul><li>Major drug problems </li></ul><ul><li>Officers in combat 6 mo/in rear 6 mo </li></ul>
    20. 21. Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968 Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968 Anti-War Demonstrations
    21. 22. Nixon on Vietnam <ul><li>Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to the great “Silent Majority” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vietnamization – encourage the SV to take more responsibility for fighting the war </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” – different opinions about the government structure Vietnam should have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agent Orange – chemicals sprayed on trees and plants that provided cover for enemy forces – many veterans had health issues after exposure (cancer) </li></ul>
    22. 23. The Ceasefire, 1973 <ul><li>Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. to remove all troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam would resume war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No provision for POWs or MIAs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City </li></ul>
    23. 24. The Fall of Saigon South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country
    24. 25. The Fall of Saigon America Abandons Its Embassy April 30, 1975
    25. 26. The Fall of Saigon North Vietnamese at the Presidential Palace
    26. 27. Formerly Saigon A United Vietnam
    27. 28. <ul><li>Of the 2.7 million Americans that served in the Vietnam war… </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 were wounded in action </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 were disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Of the casualties listed on The Wall, approximately 1,300 remain missing in action </li></ul><ul><li>58,129 were killed </li></ul><ul><li>The average age was 19 </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>On the Vietnamese side it is estimated… </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 million North Vietnamese and Viet Cong (Southern resistance soldiers) were killed </li></ul><ul><li>Over 2 million North and South Vietnamese citizens were killed </li></ul>
    29. 30. 2,583 American POWs / MIAs still unaccounted for today.
    30. 31. <ul><li>If we have to fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our men and we will kill one of yours, and in the end it will be you who tires of it. </li></ul>And in the End…. Ho Chi Minh:
    31. 32. Memorial to US Servicemen in Vietnam
    32. 33. Memorial to US Nurses in Vietnam
    33. 34. 58,000

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