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0733 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production
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0733 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production

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Presenter: S.P. Singh, R.M. Kumar, B. Sreedevi, P. Krishnamurthy, and S.V. Subbaiah …

Presenter: S.P. Singh, R.M. Kumar, B. Sreedevi, P. Krishnamurthy, and S.V. Subbaiah

Audience: 2nd National SRI Symposium, Agartala, India

Subject Country: India

Published in Technology , Business
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  • 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production S.P. Singh, R.M. Kumar, B. Sreedevi, P. Krishnamurthy, and S.V. Subbaiah Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, HYDERABAD – 500 030 Department of Agronomy
  • 2. Rice is the most important cereal crop in India that holds the key for food security. In India, rice is grown in an area of about 42.5 m.ha. with a production of about 87.5 m. tons. With an average annual population growth rate of 1.8 percent and per capita consumption estimated to be 400 gm of rice per day, demand for rice is expected to reach 140 m. tonnes by 2025. This increase in demand can only be met by maintaining a steady increase in production of 2 million tons per year in the coming decades. The potential yield increase from HYVs has remained stagnant along with a decline in the natural resource base. So to meet rice requirements in the future, there is need to surmount the technological challenges of breaking the yield barrier, improving input use efficiency, evolving innovative agronomic practices, cost-effective/low-cost crop management techniques, and developing environmentally-acceptable strategies .
  • 3. Healthy crop
  • 4. Objectives
    • To identify the sustainability of different crop establishment methods for increasing the yield in transplanted rice.
    • To assess the effects of alternative sowing and transplanting dates in different crop establishment methods.
  • 5. Materials and methods
    • Co-ordinated trials on evaluation of different methods of rice cultivation were conducted during kharif 2004, 2005 and 2006 under a wide variety of soil conditions -- sandy, sandy loam, clay, and clay loam soils in the:
    • Southern Zone : Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Mandya, Karaikal, Aduthurai, Siruguppa, Pondicherry, and Maruteru;
    • Western Zone : Karjat and Nawagam;
    • Northern Zone : Pantnagar and Ludhiana;
    • Eastern Zone : Pusa, Patna, Raipur, Titabar, Kanpur, Chiplima, Jagadalpur and Ranchi;
    • Hill Zone : lmora, Malan, Upper Shillong, Umiam, Khudwani, Chatha, and Arundhatinagar.
  • 6. Treatment details T1 Standard practice of transplanting (CRC) T2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) T3 Integrated crop management (ICM) T4 Standard practice of transplanting (CRC) T5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) T6 Integrated crop management (ICM)
  • 7. Activities of CRC, SRI and ICM Activity Conventional Rice Cultivation (CRC) System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Nursery Normal wet soil Raised bed method Mat method of nursery Area for nursery 1000m 2 /ha 100m 2 /ha 100 m 2 /ha Seed rate for nursery (kg/ha) 35 – 40 5 – 6 10 – 12 Seedling age (days) 21 – 30 8 – 12 15 – 18 Transplanting (seedling/hill) 2-3 1 2 Spacing (Row x Plant) 20 x 10 25 x 25 20 x 20
  • 8. Activity Conventional Rice Cultivation (CRC) System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Weed control Herbicides fb. Spot weeding Use a cono-weeder three to four times in both directions to uproot and incorporate weeds into soil, and most importantly, to aerate the soil. Start cono-weeding 10 – 15 days after transplanting. A rotating hoe (conical or rotary weeder) is used for mechanical weeding + soil stirring in both directions at 15 days after transplanting (DAT). 2 nd weeding is done around 25 DAT and then as necessary Water manage-ment Recommended method of water management No standing water during growth period. Intermittent wetting and drying until panicle initiation (saturated field conditions). After panicle initiation. 1–2 cm of water is kept for about three weeks. Wetting and drying method of irrigation is used. Nutrient manage-ment Compost is used along with recommended fertilizer depending upon the soil fertility. Use straw, green manure and animal manure to enrich the organic content of the soil to promote populations of earth-worms and microorganisms and to facilitate nutrient availability. Site-specific integrated nutrient management.
  • 9. Southern zone: Higher grain yield compared to CRC recorded for SRI (4.4 to 22.8%) and ICM (4.5 to 10.3%) at Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Aduthurai, Mandya and Siruguppa, while reduction in grain yield was recorded under SRI and ICM compared to CRC at Pondicherry, Karaikal and Maruteru under same date of nursery sowing. Under same date of transplanting, SRI recorded higher grain yield of 19.0 to 31.9% at Coimbatore, Aduthurai and Siruguppa, and ICM recorded 9.6 to 23.0% more at Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Aduthurai, Sirguppa and Maruteru, while reduction in grain yield was recorded under SRI at ARI-Rajendranagar, Mandya, Pondicherry, Karaikal and Maruteru, and under ICM at Mandya, and Karaikal. RESULTS
  • 10. South zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI, ICM over CRC, and SRI over ICM Treatments CTB ARI ADT MND SRG PDY KRK MTU Mean SRI vs. CRC (% increase by T2 over T1) 22.76 19.87 15.34 6.05 4.44 -0.84 -24.67 -2.94 5.00 ICM vs. CPC (% increase by T3 over T1) 9.44 5.86 10.30 4.53 -1.15 -5.04 -20.68 -2.74 0.07 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T2 over T3) 12.17 13.24 4.56 1.45 5.66 4.42 -5.03 -0.20 4.53 SRI vs. CRC (% increase by T5 over T4) 30.40 -13.23 19.02 -12.61 31.92 -38.67 -18.53 -7.25 -1.12 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T4 over T6) 20.09 9.67 13.20 -18.29 23.03 - -11.61 9.59 6.53 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T5 over T6) 8.59 -20.88 5.14 6.95 7.23 - -7.83 -15.37 -2.31
  • 11.  
  • 12. Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM SOUTH ZONE Treatments Coimbatore ARI-Rajendranagar Aduthurai 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 Mean T1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 8.79 7.16 5.18 7.04 4.18 5.84 5.68 5.23 4.50 4.04 4.27 T2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 10.13 10.47 5.34 8.65 5.60 6.40 6.82 6.27 5.34 4.51 4.93 T3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 9.04 7.71 6.38 7.71 4.57 6.00 6.05 5.54 5.05 4.37 4.71 T4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 8.00     8.00 3.93     3.93 4.47   4.47 T5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 10.43     10.43 3.41     3.41 5.32   5.32 T6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 9.61     9.61 4.31     4.31 5.06   5.06
  • 13. Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM SOUTH ZONE Treatments Mandya Siruguppa Pondicherry 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 Mean T1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 4.89 5.63 5.52 5.35 5.42 5.63 2.72 5.53 3.57 3.57 T2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 4.39 6.64 5.98 5.67 7.40 7.02 2.90 5.77 3.54 3.54 T3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 4.48 6.49 5.79 5.59 6.69 6.85 2.85 5.46 3.39 3.39 T4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.16     5.16 5.57     5.57 4.50 4.50 T5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.51     4.51 7.34     7.34 2.76 2.76 T6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.22     4.22 6.85     6.85 - -
  • 14. Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM SOUTH ZONE Treatments Karaikal Maruteru 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean T1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same)   4.58 2.19   3.39 3.84 6.37   5.11 T2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same)   3.75 1.35   2.55 3.49 6.42   4.96 T3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same)   3.85 1.52   2.69 3.68 6.25   4.97 T4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same)   4.48     4.48 3.86     3.86 T5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same)   3.65     3.65 3.58     3.58 T6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same)   3.96     3.96 4.23     4.23
  • 15. Western zone (Nawagam and Karjat): Compared to CRC, SRI (7.0 to 7.8%) and ICM (0.84 to 6.7%) recorded higher grain yield under same of date of nursery sowing; while under same of date of transplanting, SRI recorded higher grain yield (-0.82 to 8.82%) over CRC, but yield reduction was recorded by ICM over CRC.
  • 16. Western zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI,ICM over CRC, and SRI over ICM Treatments Nawagam Karjat Overall CRC vs. SRI (% increase by T2 over T1) 7.82 6.99 7.40 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T3 over T1) 0.84 6.70 3.77 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T2 over T3) 6.92 0.27 3.60 CRC vs. SRI (% increase by T5 over T4) 8.82 -0.82 4.00 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T4 over T6) -2.14 0.82 -0.66 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T5 over T6) 11.20 -1.62 4.79
  • 17.  
  • 18. WEST ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Nawagam Karjat 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 4.73 6.15 5.83 5.57 4.84 7.45 5.03 5.77 S2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.26 5.95 5.81 6.01 5.15 8.15 5.23 6.18 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 5.32 5.81 5.72 5.62 5.19 8.09 5.20 6.16 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.01     5.01 4.89     4.89 S5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.45     5.45 4.85     4.85 S6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.90     4.90 4.93     4.93
  • 19. Northern zone (Pantnagar & Karputhala/Ludhiana): Recorded reduction in grain yield in SRI and ICM over CRC under same date of nursery sowing as well as with same date of transplanting North Zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI, ICM over CRC, and SRI over ICM Treatments Pantnagar Kapurthala / Ludhiana Overall CRC vs. SRI (% increase by T2 over T1) -1.29 -9.91 -5.60 CRC Vv. ICM (% increase by T3 over T1) -1.90 -12.24 -7.07 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T2 over T3) 0.62 2.66 1.64 CRC vs. SRI (% increase by T5 over T4) -6.58 -2.29 -4.44 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T4 over T6) -5.91 1.50 -2.21 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T5 over T6) -0.71 -3.73 -2.22
  • 20.  
  • 21. NORTH ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Pantnagar Kapurthala / Ludhiana 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.22 6.52 5.85 6.20 7.85 5.27 6.56 S2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.64 5.84 5.87 6.12 7.98 3.84 5.91 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.41 5.93 5.90 6.08 7.02 4.50 5.76 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 6.27 6.27 8.03 8.03 S5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.86 5.86 7.84 7.84 S6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.90 5.90 8.15 8.15
  • 22. Eastern zone: SRI (0.44 to 29.25%) and ICM (7.7 to 31.82%) recorded higher grain yield over CRC at Patna, Titabar, Kanpur, Ranchi and Chiplima, while reduction in grain yield was recorded at Pusa, Raipur and Jagdalpur under same date of nursery sowing. However, under same date of transplanting, SRI (1 to 15.8%) at Pusa, Patna, Titabar, Jagdalpur and Ranchi and ICM (6.8 to 19.3%) at Pusa, Patna, Titabar, Chiplima and Ranchi recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while reduction in grain yield under SRI and ICM was recorded at Chiplima and Raipur and Jagdalpur
  • 23. Eastern zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI, ICM over CRC, & SRI over ICM Treatments PSA PTN TTB KPR CHP JGD RPR RNC Mean CRC vs. SRI (% increase by T2 over T1) -6.92 29.25 9.93 30.12 -8.10 0.44 -0.53 14.14 8.54 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T3 over T1) -6.57 14.45 13.69 31.82 7.76 -5.95 -1.96 12.11 8.17 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T2 over T31) -0.38 12.93 -3.31 -1.29 -14.72 6.80 1.46 1.81 0.41 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T5 over T4) 1.00 10.88 13.69 - -8.19 15.78 -3.74 12.58 6.00 CRC vs. ICM (% increase by T4 over T6) 9.00 6.76 19.29 - 8.19 -2.37 -2.50 13.42 7.40 SRI vs. ICM (% increase by T5 over T6) -7.34 3.85 -4.69 - -15.13 18.59 -1.28 -0.74 -0.96
  • 24. EASTERN ZONE Treatments PSA PTN TTB KPR CHP JGD RPR RNC Mean T1 vs. T2 -6.92 29.25 9.93 30.12 -8.10 0.44 -0.53 14.14 8.54 T1 vs. T3 -6.57 14.45 13.69 31.82 7.76 -5.95 -1.96 12.11 8.17 T2 vs. T3 -0.38 12.93 -3.31 -1.29 -14.72 6.80 1.46 1.81 0.41 T4 vs. T5 1.00 10.88 13.69 - -8.19 15.78 -3.74 12.58 6.00 T4 vs. T6 9.00 6.76 19.29 - 8.19 -2.37 -2.50 13.42 7.40 T5 vs. T6 -7.34 3.85 -4.69 - -15.13 18.59 -1.28 -0.74 -0.96
  • 25.  
  • 26. EAST ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Pusa Patna Titabar 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 3.98 4.55   4.27 4.36 4.06 3.93 4.12 4.57 4.39 4.15 4.37 S2 System of Rice Intensifi-cation (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates aame) 4.17 3.77   3.97 4.82 5.03 6.11 5.32 4.83 4.76 4.83 4.81 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 4.24 3.73   3.99 4.55 4.41 5.17 4.71 4.90 5.11 4.90 4.97 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.00     4.00 4.19     4.19 4.33     4.33 S5 System of Rice Intensifi-cation (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.04     4.04 4.64     4.64 4.93     4.93 S6 Integrated crop manage-ment (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 4.36     4.36 4.47     4.47 5.17     5.17
  • 27. EAST ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Kanpur Chiplima Jagdalpur 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 5.41     5.41 5.03 4.86 4.60 4.83 5.70 5.67 4.65 5.69 S2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 7.03     7.03 4.65 4.47 4.20 4.44 5.80 6.11 5.22 5.71 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 7.13     7.13 5.41 5.24 4.97 5.21 4.63 6.21 5.20 5.35 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) -       5.19     5.19 5.07     5.07 S5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (trans-planting dates same) -       4.77     4.77 5.87     5.87 S6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (trans-planting dates same) -       5.62     5.62 4.95     4.95
  • 28. EAST ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Raipur Ranchi 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.23 7.03   6.63 4.84 4.33 6.60 5.26 S2 System of Rice Intensifi-cation (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.22 6.97 -  6.60 5.62 5.02 7.36 6.00 S3 Integrated crop manage-ment (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 6.07 6.93 -  6.50 5.55 4.95 7.18 5.89 S4 Standard practice of trans-planting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates same) 6.41   -  6.41 4.77       S5 System of Rice Intensifi-cation (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates same) 6.17   -  6.17 5.37       S6 Integrated crop manage-ment (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates same) 6.25   -  6.25 5.41      
  • 29. Hill zone: Under same date of nursery sowing, SRI (0.35 to 65.7%) at Chatha, Upper Shillong, Umiam and Arundhatinagar and ICM (17.2 to 46.8%) at Umiam and Arundhatinagar recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while in other places (Almora and Malan), reduction in grain yield was observed. Under same date of transplanting, SRI (2.7 to 93.7%) at Chatha, Khudwani, Umiam and Arundhatinagar and ICM (20.6 to 43.3%) at Khudwani, Umiam and Arundhatinagar recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while in other places, reduction in grain yield was observed in SRI and ICM over CRC.
  • 30. Hill zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI, ICM over CRC, and SRI over ICM Treatments CHT KHD SUS UMM ARD ALM MLN Mean + Mean - ARD T1 Vs T2 (% increase by T2 over T1) 5.45 - 0.35 13.18 65.73 -23.79 -3.36 9.59 -1.64 T1 Vs T3 (% increase by T3 over T1) -4.33 - -4.37 17.15 46.76 -29.29 -0.94 4.16 -4.36 T2 Vs T3 (% increase by T2 over T31) 10.22 - 4.94 -3.39 12.93 7.77 -2.44 5.00 3.42 T4 Vs T5 (% increase by T5 over T4) 2.67 19.85 - 16.90 93.74 - -2.01 26.23 9.35 T4 Vs T6 (% increase by T4 over T6) -6.30 20.62 - 21.81 43.25 - -4.01 15.07 8.03 T5 Vs T6 (% increase by T5 over T6) 9.57 -0.64 - -4.03 35.25 - 2.09 8.45 1.75
  • 31. HILL ZONE Treatments CHT KHD SUS UMM ARD ALM MLN Mean Mean - ARD T1 Vs T2 5.45 - 0.35 13.18 65.73 -23.79 -3.36 9.59 -1.64 T1 Vs T3 -4.33 - -4.37 17.15 46.76 -29.29 -0.94 4.16 -4.36 T2 Vs T3 10.22 - 4.94 -3.39 12.93 7.77 -2.44 5.00 3.42 T4 Vs T5 2.67 19.85 - 16.90 93.74 - -2.01 26.23 9.35 T4 Vs T6 -6.30 20.62 - 21.81 43.25 - -4.01 15.07 8.03 T5 Vs T6 9.57 -0.64 - -4.03 35.25 - 2.09 8.45 1.75
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. HILL ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Chatha Khudwani Upper Shillong 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean 2006 2005 2004 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 8.20 7.96   8.08 -   - - - 2.87 2.85   2.86 S2 System of Rice Inten-sification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 8.61 8.43   8.52 -   - - - 3.07 2.67   2.87 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 7.81 7.65   7.73 -   - - - 2.96 2.51   2.74 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm ((transplanting dates are same) 8.25     8.25 3.88     3.88 -       S5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 8.47     8.47 4.65     4.65 -       S6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 7.73     7.73 4.68     4.68 -      
  • 35. HILL ZONE Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM Treatments Umiam Arundhathinagar Almora Malan ‘ 06 ‘ 05 Mean ‘ 06 ‘ 05 ‘ 04 Mean ‘ 06 ‘ 05 ‘ 04 Mean ‘ 06 ‘ 05 ‘ 04 Mean S1 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (nursery dates are same) 5.09 3.83 4.46 5.12 5.09 6.13 5.45 5.91 6.46 2.59 6.19 5.80 6.75 4.33 5.63 S2 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (nursery dates are same) 5.74 4.36   5.05 9.90 8.50 8.68 9.03 5.72 5.45 2.97 4.71 6.77 5.50 4.05 5.44 S3 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (nursery dates are same) 5.78 4.67   5.23 7.80 8.21 7.97 7.99 5.88 4.63 2.61 4.37 6.94 6.01 3.77 5.57 S4 Standard practice of transplanting with 20 X 10 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.09     5.09 5.11     5.11 -       5.93     5.93 S5 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with 25x25 cm (transplanting dates are same) 5.95     5.95 9.90     9.90 -       5.81     5.81 S6 Integrated crop management (ICM) with 20 x 20 cm (transplanting dates are same) 6.20     6.20 7.32     7.32 -       5.69     5.69
  • 36. Overall performance of SRI and ICM over CRC under AICRIP Agronomy during 3 years Treat South West North East Hill Overall (+ARD) (- ARD) (+ARD) (- ARD) T1 5.00 7.40 -5.60 8.54 9.59 -1.64 6.17 2.74 T2 0.07 3.77 -7.07 8.17 4.16 -4.36 2.14 0.12 T3 4.53 3.60 1.64 0.41 5.00 3.42 3.85 2.69 T4 -1.12 4.00 -4.44 6.00 26.23 9.36 14.50 2.76 T5 6.53 -0.66 -2.21 7.40 15.07 8.03 9.45 3.82 T6 -2.31 4.79 -2.22 -0.96 8.45 1.75 4.33 0.21
  • 37. More research is needed on mechanical weeding + soil churning in relation to root growth and grain yield in different soil types. Quantification of water, land and labour productivity and nutrient use efficiency are required. Relative number and diversity of micro-organisms, presence of enzymes, and nutrients release patterns in rice rhizosphere under ICM and SRI have to characterized. Additional attention is also required for grain yield trends with timing, emergence of insects and pests, and nutrient mining under both systems. SRI and ICM system have a high potential for rice production and farmers’ income in future with less input requirement.
  • 38. Thank you one and all