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Integrated Farming System

  1. 1. Coming together is beginning, Keeping together is Progress, Working together is Success -Henry Ford
  2. 2. Global level work on Climate Smart Integrated Farming System Presented by Kharche Priyanka Pramod Reg. No. 2018/03 Research Guide and Course Teacher Dr. U. S. Surve Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, PGI, MPKV, Rahuri
  3. 3. Introduction 'Farming' is a process of harnessing solar energy in the form of economic plant and animal products. 'System' implies a set of interrelated practices and processes organized into functional entity. Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is an approach to help the people who manage agricultural systems respond effectively to climate change . The CSA approach pursues the triple objectives of sustainably increasing productivity and incomes, adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions where possible.
  4. 4. WHAT IS IFS? Integrated farming is a whole farm management system which aims to deliver more sustainable agriculture It refers to agricultural system that integrate livestock and crop production. Integrated farming system has revolutionized conventional farming of livestock, aquaculture,, horticulture, agro- industry and allied activities. It is also called as Integrated Production System
  5. 5. The four primary goals of IFS are- Maximization of yield of all component enterprises to provide steady and stable income. Rejuvenation/amelioration of system's productivity and achieve agro-ecological equilibrium. Avoid build-up of insect-pests, diseases and weed population through natural cropping system management and keep them at low level of intensity. Reducing the use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) to provide chemical free healthy produce and environment to the society. Goals of Integrated Farming System Manjunatha et al., 2014
  6. 6. Advantages of Integrated Farming System Increased Productivity Improved Profitability Sustainable Production Recycling of Waste Employment generation Entrepreneurship Reduced Cost of Production Balanced food Environment safety Adoption of new technology Meeting fodder crisis Increasing input efficiency Patra and Samal, 2018
  7. 7. Components in IFS Agriculture Horticulture Forestry Apiary Sericulture Dairy Poultry Goat keeping Sheep rearing Piggery Rabbitory Fish farming Duck rearing  Pigeon rearing Mushroom cultivation Azolla farming Kitchen gardening Fodder production Nursery Seed production Vermiculture Value addition Manjunatha et al., 2014
  8. 8. Enterprises linked in different agro- ecosystem Dry land Garden land Wet land Dairy Dairy Dairy Poultry Poultry Poultry Goat /Sheep Mushroom Mushroom Agroforestry Apiary Apiary Farm pond Piggery Fishery - Sericulture Duckery
  9. 9. Elements of Integrated Farming System •Watershed •Farm ponds •Bio-pesticides •Bio-fertilizers •Plant products such as pesticides •Bio-gas •Solar energy •Compost making •Green manuring •Rain water harvesting Manjunatha et al., 2014
  10. 10. Principles of IFS Crop rotation Minimum soil cultivation Use of improved cultivars Modification in sowing time Targeted application of nutrients Rational use of agrochemicals Management of field to make habitat for natural enemies Use of tillage to control naturally pest, improve soil structure Crop diversity Promotion of biodiversity
  11. 11. Introduction to Asian Integrated Farming Systems Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the World with annual growth in excess of 10 percent over the last two decades. Much of this development has occurred in Asia, which also has the greatest variety of cultured species and systems. Asia is also perceived as the ‘home’ of aquaculture, as aquaculture has a long history in several areas of the region and knowledge of traditional systems is most widespread. Furthermore, the integration of livestock and fish production is best established in Asia.
  12. 12. Production technology Social and economic aspects Sustainable Aquaculture system Environmental aspects The development of Sustainable Aquaculture System involves considerations of Production technology , Social and economic aspects and environmental aspects Productive Socially relevant and Profitable Environmentally compatible Source:AIT,1994
  13. 13. Integrated fish farming refers to the production, integrated management and comprehensive use of aquaculture, agriculture and livestock with an emphasis on aquaculture. China has a long and rich history of integrated fish farming. •Type of IFS Model •Grass- fish •Water hyacinth- Fish •Pig- Grass- Fish •Chinese embankment fish culture Integrated Farming System in China
  14. 14. A variety of aquatic plants can be used as supplemental feeds in fish production; however, water hyacinth is the best. An area approximately one-half the size of the fish pond is needed to produce enough water hyacinth for supplemental feeding. Water hyacinth can produce up to 300 T/ha (fresh wt.). Net fish yields can also reach 600 T/ha without supplemental feeding or the use of additional manures. Pond sizes and stocking rates are the same as the grass-fish system. Fish input costs using water hyacinth comprise less than 15% when compared to cereal grain (barley)-fed fish. WATER HYACINTH FISH
  15. 15. PIG-GRASS-FISH Integrated Farming System
  16. 16. Fodder-fish integration practice in Malaysia In Malaysia, integrated farming systems have been practiced since the 1930s with the production of fish in paddy fields and pig-fish in ponds. Although research shows that these systems are technically feasible and economically viable, socioeconomic factors such as consumer preference, adoption by farmers, etc., need to be considered. Fodder- fish integration is one widely accepted system.
  17. 17. The V.A.C. system in Northern Vietnam The Vietnamese saying Nhat canh tri, cans vien says that the first profitable activity is aquaculture and the second is agriculture, horticulture or gardening. Integrated farming is a traditional approach to family food production in the poor, rural regions of Vietnam. The integration of the home lot, garden, livestock and fish pond is called the VAC system (VAC in Vietnamese is Vuon, ao, chuong which means garden/pond/livestock pen).
  18. 18. A picture depicting VAC System
  19. 19. Calendar of VAC System
  20. 20.
  21. 21. North America
  22. 22. Integrated Farm-Based Biorefinery Wei Liao and David Hodge, 2014 Michigan State University and Montana State University
  23. 23. Integrated farm- based Bio refinery Fossil fuel dependance has been increased since industrial revolution. This can be reduced by by accelerating the development of renewable alternatives to stationary power and transportation fuel, and the United States intends to displace up to 30% of the nation’s gasoline consumption and 10% of total industrial and electric generator energy demand by 2030. An integrated farm-based bio-refining concept that combines anaerobic digestion, algae cultivation, and bio-ethanol production using lignocellulosic feedstock (animal manure and corn stover), thereby making use of synergies between process streams and producing multiple fuel and chemical products (methane, ethanol, and algal biomass).
  24. 24. Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Integrated Farming Systems and their Potential Application in the High Rainfall Zone of Southern Australia: a Review Nie et al., 2016 Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport & Resources (DEDJTR) Hamilton centre, Victoria 3300, Australia
  25. 25.  Crop-pasture rotation  Crop-pasture intercropping  Dual purpose crops: grazing at vegetative stage  Alley cropping
  26. 26.  A complimentary system  Nitrogen fixation and transfer  Non-nitrogen resource capture and use  Soil physical, chemical and biological properties  Control of weeds, pests and diseases  Management and environmental benefits  Economic returns
  27. 27.  Grain yield reduction in ICL systems  Stubble management, grazing and groundcover  Pasture cropping in high rainfall zone  Management decisions and modeling of the ICL system  Chemical resistant weeds and pests  Constraints to crop production in the HRZ
  28. 28. Co-cultivation of microalgae in Aquaponic systems Addy et al., 2017 Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA
  29. 29. Aquaponics, synergistically integrated aquaculture and hydroponics, is considered as a sustainable system for the future urban farming. In an aquaponic system, wastewater generated by fish is converted to high-value vegetable products (Love et al., 2015) Microalgae, as a naturally occurring microorganism in the aquaponic system, are commonly considered a nuisance because they often plug the water pipes, consume oxygen, attract insects and worsen the water quality. The decomposition of accumulated algae leads to excessive consumption of dissolved oxygen and results in a low level of dissolved oxygen (DO) that is dangerous to fish life. Algae could also cause diurnal pH swings and DO variation due to photoautotrophic growth under daytime light and respiration during the night (Storey, 2013) which shows algae have a great impact in an ecological system. Importance of Algae in Aquaponics
  30. 30. •Microalgae are known for high lipid content with enriched omega-3 fatty acids which are uncommon in many aquaponics vegetables. •It was reported that many algal species contain about 20% of lipids and among them many fatty acids were essential fatty acid (Li et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2012). •Adding suitable algae to the fish feed could improve both fish health and their nutritional value (Cheunbarn and Cheunbarn, 2015; Tocher, 2010). •Furthermore, the algae production might add additional economic value for the feed because the market values of algae are high, e.g., Spirulina is about $10/Lb and Chlorella is nearly $20/Lb which is more expensive than vegetable. Why Microalgae ?
  31. 31. In the first study, a comparison experiment was set up to evaluate the algae effect on the aquaponic system. In one of the system, an algae section replaced one of the rafts. I. System one (NP1) had 30 plants in two rafts and one algae section II. System two (NP2) had 45 plants in three rafts without algae section. Considering the summer weather condition, a heat resistant plant Kale was selected for the first study. First year Study
  32. 32. In the second study, difference made in NP2 system was that the fish was removed, instead, digested swine manure wastewater was used as the nutrient recourse since January 2017. Half of the Swiss chard was replaced by Kale in both systems due to quick growth and easy harvesting by cutting off the outer leaves. After cutting the big leaves, the rest would keep growing. In both systems, an algae section was added during February and March 2017 to evaluate the algal biomass productivity. Without fish in NP2, a higher level of nutrient could be used in the system; combined with the nitrification process, a better algal growth was expecting in NP2. Second year Study
  33. 33. The algae component has many proven positive impact in the aquaponics system. In daily operations, algae can help balance pH value, add oxygen, and control ammonia in the system. Although algae have lower productivity comparable to vegetable and economically unfavorable to grower, but algae can remove nitrogen more efficiently than vegetable due to higher nitrogen content in algae. Moreover algae are unlikely to compete with vegetable for nitrate nitrogen but compete for total nitrogen resource and growth space. In term of water treatment, algae have a unique role in the aquaponic system and could be placed at the final stage of the system for further ammonia removal when situation allows. Conclusions
  34. 34. Integrated culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) with low salinity groundwater : Management and production Lagarda et al., 2012 Centro de Estudios Superiores del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  35. 35. The optimal utilization of water in arid and semi arid regions is pivotal for resource sustainability. T he integration of aquaculture with traditional agriculture may be a solution to achieve more efficient water use, maximizing farm production without increasing water consumption, avoiding disposition of aquaculture effluents and supplementing additional fertilizer to the agricultural crop. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of shrimp tomato and evaluating the effects of the irrigation with shrimp farm effluent on tomato yield and to describe shrimp production. Introduction
  36. 36. Production data mean±SD Harvest size(g) 13.9±0.4 Yield (kg ha-1) 3932±204 Feed Conversion Ratio 1.61±0.03 Growth rate (g week-1) 0.73±0.04 Survival (%) 56.3±1.1 Water use (m3 kg-1 Shrimp) 4.7±0.3 Water use (m3 kg-1 Shrimp+ tomato) 2.1±0.1 Results:
  37. 37. Production data Plants irrigated with shrimp effluent Plants irrigated with nutritive solution Plants irrigated with ground water No. of tomato plant-1 7.0±1.0 7.5±0.9 6.0±1.5 Tomatoes kg plant-1 0.7±0.2 0.8±0.1 0.6±0.2 Individual weight (g) 110.6±22.5 105.1±27.7 94.8±25.8 yield (t ha-1) 36.1±2.3 38.7±1.9 27.6±2.6 Results:
  38. 38. Integrated crop-livestock systems in the Brazilian Subtropics Moraes et al., 2014 Federal University of Parana (UFPR) Agricultural Science Sector, Crop Production and Crop Protection Department, Brazil
  39. 39.  1. Irrigated rice cultivation and grazing  2. Integrated system with soybean and corn in the Brazilian subtropical plateau
  40. 40.  Effect of trampling on soil physical attributes  Effects of animal on soil chemical attributes  Effect of animals on soil biological attributes
  41. 41. Variables Behavior ICLS vs. PC Soil density increases Soil porosity similar Soil moisture decreases Soil aggregation increases Mechanical resistance increases Soil carbon stocks increases Soil phosphorous availability increases Soil microbial biomass increases Soil microbial diversity increases grain yield increases Profitability increases Economic risk decreases System sustainability increases Synthesis of results obtained for selected variables indicating the effect of employing an ICLS under no tillage conditions compared to using pure cropping system (PC) in studies performed in the Brazilian subtropics
  42. 42. Can Farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and food ? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with green biorefinery Parajuli et al., 2018 Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Denmark
  43. 43. System I- Feed crops & green biomass System II- Green biorefinery System III- Livestock (Pig + Suckler cow calves) System IV- Biogas conversion and upgrading Model has IV System they are as follows
  44. 44. Products Substitution factor Alternative products LW-SCC - Assumed as the main productLW-Pig - Feed protein 1.58 Soymeal Fodder silage 0.91 Ukranian barley Biomethane 1 LNG Electricity 1 Danish marginal electricity mix Heat 1 Natural gas fired district heat Recovered nutrients (digestate) NPK Marginal fertilizer Basic assumptions considered for the substitutions of the alternative products
  45. 45. Potential environmental impacts obtained per FU Note: FU: FUNCTIONAL UNIT -1kgLW-SCC + 1kgLW-Pigs Contributions Carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq.) EP (kg PO4 eq.) NRE use (MJ eq.) PFWTox (CTUe) Sys-I 7.38 1.2×10 -1 45 12 Sys-II 0.22 1.9×10 -4 3.1 0.4 Sys-III 16.73 2×10 -3 14 4 Sys-IV 2.52 8.8×10 -4 20 2 Gross impact 26.86 1.2×10 -1 82 18 Avoided impact -7.25 -9.8×10 -3 -211 -22 Net impact 19.6 1.1×10 -1 -129 -3.9 Net impact (with iLUC) 26.24 - - -
  46. 46. Linking Farmers and Businesses in Integrated Organic Rice and Shrimp Farming – The Best Way for Enhancing Farmer’s Income and Sustainable Agriculture Development Nguyen Cong Tanh and Tran Thi Tuyet Van, 2019 University of Giang, An Giang, Vietnam
  47. 47. Introduction: The model of shrimp-rice rotation in coastal provinces in Mekong Delta (MD), Vietnam, is a special farming system and has become the cultivation practices for decades. Material and Method: Integrated organic rice and shrimp farming and value change linkage between farmers and companies into consideration for research and development and suggesting suitable solutions in organic agriculture (OA) development. Result: Organic rice production increased profit from 6 to 10 million VND per ha compared to conventional inorganic rice production. Organic products will maintain stable market credibility in the country as well as export, creating mutual benefit for both farmers and business in the value chain linkage.
  48. 48. •Taking advantage of residual organic matter after the shrimp cultivation to supplement nutrition for the rice crops • Shrimp/aquaculture raising after rice was used artificial and natural feeds from plankton in the wetland environment and developed well due to the decomposition of roots • A rice-shrimp farming creates ecological balance and environmental safety condition for crops and livestock (aquaculture) • Limiting pests for both rice and livestock thank to the rotation to cut the pest’s source Increase resolution and leaching toxic elements by rotating modes of ecosystems • Reduce production costs by limiting the use of fertilizers due to persistent organic material residues in the soil Advantages of Rice-Shrimp System
  49. 49. Model Year Total cost (m VND ha-1) Rice yield (t ha-1 ) Rice price (VND kg-1) Total income (m VND ha-1) Profit (m VND ha-1) MBCR Organic Rice 2015 13.3 4.29 8700 37.323 24.02 1.81 2016 13.3 4.50 9280 49.78 36.48 2.74 2017 13.3 4.70 10440 51.18 37.88 2.85 Average 13.3 4.50 9473 46.09 32.79 2.47 Inorganic Rice Average 14.4 5.40 6840 34.99 20.59 1.43 Economic Efficiency of organic rice model in Chau Tranh, Tra Vinh
  50. 50. Results of sowing research and Rice variety testing Two types of sowing scattered and row sowing was practiced Row sowing with different seed rates @ 60, 80 and 100 kg per hectare were practiced. Seed rate @ 80 kg per hectare in row sowing was found best giving higher yield than scattered sowing. Rice variety suitable in organic rice-shrimp model showed that the yield of rice variety namely VTN 19 ( imported rice) was highest 47.17 q per hectare next was variety ST 5 (45.20 q per hectare) followed by OM 4900 (43.71 q per hectare) OM 6162 (41.90q per hectare) and OM 5451 (40.92 q per hectare)
  51. 51. Why Rice-Shrimp/ Crab farming models? This Farming practice has given income of about 70 million VND ha-1, excluding cost, the benefit was 40 million VND ha-1. In case of aquatic farming intercropped with rice, farmers can increase revenue from 15 to 20 million VND season-1 ha-1. These is also effective in environmental safety, and human and animals health.
  52. 52. Africa
  53. 53. Utilization of effluent fish farms in tomato cultivation Khater et al., 2015 Agriculture Engineering Department , Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt
  54. 54. Aquaponics Population is increasing and there is necessity to find out new techniques to reduce the gap between population needs and agricultural production. Aquaponics is the integration of aquaculture (fish farming ) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil). One of the new technique called Aqauponics is which we can utilize the outputs of fish farming in growing vegetables.
  55. 55. Successful Aquaponics model in Cherai, a coastal village situated in Kochi, Kerala.
  56. 56. Aquaponics has several advantages over other aquaculture systems and hydroponics system use inorganic nutrient solutions. the hydroponic component acts as a bio-filter and therefore a separate bio-filter is not needed as in other re-circulating systems. It is one of the economic solutions for getting benefits from the water waste from the fish farms as it saves nutrient and produce fresh vegetables With using the system successively its cost will be reduced and become more economic The produce plant via this system considered as an organic product which is more safe for human consumption (Khater and Ali, 2015) Why Aquaponics?
  57. 57. Small proportion of ammonia is toxic to fish. If nitrate increased over a specific limit it will be toxic to fish eaters and cause nitrate pollution and the eaters will suffer from methamoglobinema disease To avoid this problem in aquaculture, part of water should be discharged daily and add fresh water instead another solution to this problem is establishing hydroponic system attached to the aquaculture and cultivates plant in the hydroponics in order to save discharged water and gets use of existing nitrate. Advantage of Aquaponics
  58. 58. Effluent flow rate L hr-1 Fruit yield kg plant-1 No. of fruits plant-1 Water use efficiency kg m-3 4 1.06 14.12 5.54 6 1.37 16.85 7.16 Results were as follows:
  59. 59. A case study
  60. 60. Treatment Cost of culti- vation (× 103 Rs. ha-1) Gross returns (× 103 Rs. ha-1) Net returns (× 103 Rs. ha-1) Research farm IFS Model-I 361.7 561.5 199.8 On farm IFS Model-II 95.7 144.2 48.4 Research farm sequence cropping Model-III 53.5 86.1 32.6 Table 1: Comparative Performance of Different Farming System Model Surve et al., 2014
  61. 61. Treatment Annual water availability ( Quantity of water utilized ( Water productivity (Rs ha-1cm) Employment generation (man days ha-1 year-1 Research farm IFS Model-I 199 991 411.9 1275 On farm IFS Model-II 121 406 325.5 657 Research farm sequence cropping Model-III 87 374 153.3 227 Table 2: Comparative Performance of Different Farming System Model Surve et al., 2014
  62. 62. Farming System Gain in weight kg yr-1 Farrowing interval (days) No. of Piglet each farro- wing Mortality (%) Cereal Crop+Goat+ Piggery 60 205 7 25 Ceral Crop+Cattle +Piggery 75 195 8 30 Cereal Crop+ Vegetables +Poultry+ Piggery 140 180 11 2 Cereal Crop +Vegetables+ Poultry & Duckery+Piggery + Fish 150 180 12 1 Mishra and Baxla, 2016 Table 3: Performance of Piggery in different farming situations of marginal & small farmers in Rainfed plateaus of Jharkhand (Avg. from 2008-2012)
  63. 63. Farming System Net profit in Piggery Net Profit in FS B:C Cereal Crop+Goat+Piggery 12000 21000 1.50 Cereal Crop+Cattle+Piggery 10000 25000 1.60 Cereal Crop+Vegetable+ Poultry+Piggery 1,54,000 3,05,000 5.50 Cereal Crop+Vegetables+Poultry & Duckery+ Piggery+Fish 1,60,000 3,23,000 5.70 Cont… Mishra and Baxla, 2016
  64. 64. Crop details T1 (Fish) T2 (Fish+Poultry) T3 (Fish+Vegetable) T4 (Fish+Crop) Fish Production Silver carp 236 245 230 235 Grass carp 390 398 415 386 Common carp 286 319 284 285 Avg fish growth 328 354 337 325 Survival rate(%) 62.33 61.67 62 61.33 Fish production 61.34 65.49 62.68 59.8 Poultry Production No. of bird - 25 - - Avg wt.(kg) - 2.21 - Total wt.(kg) - 77.35 - Vegetable Production Capsicum(kg) - - 218 - Cauliflower -- - 380 - Crop Production Soybean - - - 17.6 Wheat - - - 32.5 Table 4 :Production details of different IFS Singh et al., 2019
  65. 65. Treatments Crops Gross income Expenditure Net income B:C ratio T1 (F) Fish 11041 3995 7046 2.76 T2 (F+P) Fish 24164 6820 17344 3.54 Poultry T3( F+V) Fish 19006 5545 13461 3.43 Capsicum Cauliflower T4 (F+C) Fish 11859 4595 7264 2.58 Soybean Wheat Singh et al., 2019 Table 5 : Economic analysis of different IFS
  66. 66. Total fingerlings (No.) Total produc tion cost Total production (kg) Selling price Gross returns Net returns B: C ratio 600 9600 125 130 16250 6650 1.69 Table 6 :Economic Analysis of Fish Production Babu et al., 2019
  67. 67. Particulars Production Systems Non integrated fish production in IFS Integrated fish production in IFS System cost of production 9600 73621 system fish equivalent yield 125 1053.43 System gross returns 16250 136946 system net returns 6650 63325 System B:C ratio 1.69 1.86 System production efficiency 0.34 2.89 Relative production efficiency(%) - 750 System profitability 18.1 173.5 Employment generation 10 70 Relative employment generation efficiency (%) - 600 Table 7 : Economic Comparison of Inte. & Non-integrated Fish Production in IFS Babu et al., 2019
  68. 68. Crops Pond dyke area(sq. m) No. of plants Price of crop Produ- ction (kg) COC GMR NMR B:C ratio Kharif Cucurbits 70 10 515 1350 5150 3802 3.82 Lablab beans 322 45 30 30 500 900 400 1.80 Tomato/ Capsicum 1192 30 515 3000 15450 12450 5.15 Rabi Cabbage 270 1052 10 780 2870 7800 4930 2.72 Broccoli 38 141 15 71 436 1065 629 2.44 Coriander 15 40 8.50 215 340 125 1.58 Total 1919.5 8371 30705 22336 3.66 Table 8 : Economics of Various Crops Cultivated on Pond Dyke Babu et al., 2019
  69. 69. Fig. Recycling and linkage of by products, waste materials to one enterprise to another Ansari et al., 2014
  70. 70. Fig. Model of IFS developed by ICAR RC for NEH region, Manipur centre, Imphal and implemented at Chandel Khulllen Ansari et al., 2014
  71. 71. Farming system Crop Poultry Fish Duckery Goatery Cattle Total system employment generation Cropping alone 416 60 40 416 C+F+P 512 40 612 C+F+D 512 40 70 622 C+F+G 512 40 130 682 C+F+D+G 512 40 70 130 752 C+F+Ct 512 40 170 722 Kumar et al., 2012 Table 14 : Employment generation by different integrated farming system C- Crop F- Fishery P- Poultry D- Duckery G-Goatery Ct- Cattle
  72. 72. Farming system RGEY (t ha-1 ) Production cost ( ha-1) Gross return ( ha-1) Net returns ( ha-1) Net returns day-1 Sustainability index (%) Cropping alone 9.23 48000 1107600 62760 172 19.3 C+F+P 18.61 83945 223405 139460 382 67.4 C+F+D 15.36 70219 184520 114301 313 51.5 C+F+G 19.63 83925 235404 151479 415 75 C+F+D+G 21.20 94915 254400 159485 437 80 C+F+Ct 21.18 125625 254240 128615 352 60.6 C+F+M 16.56 70799 198671 127872 350 60.2 mean 17.40 82490 208791 126301 346 59.2 SD± 4.22 24138 50632 31902 87 - CV(%) 24.2 29.2 24.2 25.3 25.1 - Table 15 : Productivity (RGEY) kg/ha and economics of different farming systems Kumar et al., 2012
  73. 73. Treatment Rice yield (t ha-1) Straw yield (t ha-1) Panicles m-2 Filled grain panicle-1 Test weight (g) % increase in grain yield over rice monocrop Rice monocrop 2.60 3.18 122 98.5 25.7 16.9 Rice-fish- prawn system 3.04 3.61 130 106 25.6 LSD (P=0.05) 0.21 0.17 0.4 0.5 NS Mohanty et al., 2010 Table 16 : Rice yield attributes in deepwater rice-fish-prawn system
  74. 74. Treatment Rice yield (t ha-1) Fish yield (t ha-1) REY (t ha-1) GWP (Rs m-3) NWP (Rs m-3) OV-CC ratio Rice monocrop 2.60 - 2.6 0.96 0.46 1.28 Rice-fish- prawn system 3.04 6.1 35.5 10.92 7.66 1.60 LSD (P=0.05) 0.21 0.3 0.12 0.17 0.06 Table 17 : Treatment wise avg. crop and water productivity, REY and ratio of the output value to cost of cultivation Mohanty et al., 2010 REY -Rice equivalent yield NWP- Net water productivity GWP- Gross water productivity OV-CC ratio- Output value to cost of cultivation
  75. 75. Conclusions •The high efficiency of integrated agriculture production systems delivers socio-economic and ecological benefits that benefit farmers as well the whole society. •There are many ways in which integrated agriculture production systems can help producers to adapt to climate change and provide important mitigation co-benefits. •The sustainable intensification of integrated agriculture production systems requires: a better understanding of the impacts of changes in climate and climate variability on these systems •The generation and sharing of local and global knowledge, experiences and practices; capacity development through research and development, dialogue and dissemination of information; and support and coordination of policies, particularly policies that can provide incentives and create enabling institutions. Food and Agriculture Organization
  76. 76. The success of your Presentation will be judged not by the knowledge but by what the listener receives -Lilly Walters